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    Ryan Serhant Wife – Million Dollar Listing New York
    Posted on Wednesday, July 24 @ 00:00:17 PDT (0 reads)
    College Guide Ryan serhant wife – million dollar listing new york ryan serhant is a famous real estate agent, and star of the reality show million dollar listing new york. His personal life attracted a lot of attention, especially from his wife, emilia bechrakis serhant. ryan serhant and emilia bechrakis got acquainted in 2011 through friends. At that time, ryan was a rising real estate agent in new york, whereas emilia, who was born in greece, was studying law. The first meeting of the two characters is characterized by their admiration of each other’s goals and character traits. the couple got married lavishly on the island of corfu in greece in july 2016. The wedding was a combination of greek culture and contemporary style. It was a small event graced by friends and family members on both sides. The charismatic and energetic ryan serhant, who became famous for his work in million dollar listing new york, delighted his fans with joyful messages on social media, which showed the moments of their wedding ceremony. more about emilia emilia comes from a multi-ethnic background, both american and greek. She was born in new york on the 3rd of july in 1985 and has lived in several regions of the world. She was raised in a village named mani, greece, but she was also a child in pennsylvania and athens. Emilia also has a sister and a brother; emilia was 18 years old when she moved to london to further her education in college. she grew up to become a barrister and practiced maritime law. Since emilia went to college, she became a lawyer in new york and began practicing in 2016. The 39-year-old does not fully practice law anymore as a profession, though he is still involved with it. However, she is still able to practice law by doing volunteer pro bono work for the innocence project, which seeks to free innocent people and reform the criminal justice system. the beautiful emilia, who was once a law student and is also a philanthropist, has been involved in charity works and has supported several charities. Her activity is not limited to being ryan serhant’s wife, as she also promotes her own interests and activities, such as social causes and women’s rights. the updates show that the serhant family is still prosperous. Ryan and emilia continue working and raising a family, and they show happiness and development to their followers. They have become role models to many, as they present a healthy relationship based on respect, love, and common principles.
    ( Read More... | 4968 bytes more | comments? | Printer Friendly Page  Send this Story to a Friend )

     
    New Digital Nomad visas (updated): More countries see restless internationals as
    Posted on Wednesday, July 24 @ 00:00:17 PDT (0 reads)
    College Guide ( editor’s note : some countries such as hungary and mexico have digital nomad visas, but we can’t in good conscience recommend them because of crime or authoritarian governments .) the question we get more than any other is “what’s the easiest route to living in europe long-term?” In the past, we would have directed you to our golden visa archives or our posts about freelance visas . But for the past two years, very attractive countries have started seeing digital nomads as long-term economic assets and image boosters and are issuing digital nomad visas. that’s because many are skilled developers, entrepreneurs, social media marketers and influencers pulling down serious jack. But you don’t have to be all about the money. You, like our beth hoke, can make a living doing what you love to do , in her case, writing, teaching english and hustling clients while she experiences the best europe has to offer. but there’s more to it than that. A lot of less-developed countries see digital nomads as a way to instantly boost their talent bases, according to this wall street journal post. “countries are now competing for talent, just like companies used to compete for talent,” the wsj quotes prithwiraj choudhury, an associate professor at harvard business school, as saying. Choudhury estimates more than 24 countries worldwide now provide digital-nomad visas. by the way, japanese technologist tsugio makimoto predicted this trend back in 1997, years before wifi and fast internet connections were really a thing. You can see more about his book, “digital nomad,” here. As of late 2022, there’s a new wrinkle – the digital nomads who believe the nation state and national identity are obsolete . You can read about that here. so let’s look at the latest developments. We’re updating this post as they come online but most of europe now has digital nomad visas. The action has shifted to south america and asia. See below for details about uruguay’s new dn visa. the following list is in the order of the newest to the oldest: andorra how did we miss andorra’s new digital nomad visa, which came into effect last summer? Well, perched in the mountains between spain and france, andorra is missable. Back in the day, we went through andorra on a train without even realizing it. But if your dream is to be slung up in andorra, that is now a reality. or is it? weirdly, it’s all very vague. Andorra apparently passed legislation titled, “on the digital economy, entrepreneurship and innovation” that included parameters for a dn visa. The visa would be good for two years and have a reasonable minimum income requirement of about 4,000 euros per month. andorra, like everyone else, defines a digital nomad as someone who uses “telecommunications and technology” to do their job, and can do it from anywhere. So far, so good. Then we found several sources including the government website stating andorra has created 100 residence permits, but is limiting the number of digital nomads allowed to stay in the country to 50. has anyone ever actually gotten a digital nomad visa for andorra? It’s not clear they have, but you can try your luck here in catalan. And who knew andorrans speak catalan? turkey we’re not even going to pretend not to be excited about this one: we spent three weeks last year playing digital nomads up and down the turkish coast. It was fabulous. Now, you can have that experience and stay up to six months, but we have to say the requirements are odd. • you have to be of working age, between 21 and 55 years old and have a college degree (never seen that before.) • you must have at least $3,000 in monthly income, or $36,000 in annual wages, from an employer outside turkey. • you must be from one of these countries – france, germany, italy, belgium, netherlands, luxembourg, ireland, denmark, greece, croatia, spain, portugal, austria, finland, sweden, czech republic, hungary, poland, slovenia, slovakia, estonia, latvia, lithuania, malta, bulgaria, romania , norway, iceland, liechtenstein, united kingdom, switzerland, usa, canada, russian federation, ukraine, belarus. another quirk is that the turkish government is pushing western turkey, with info on the website about istanbul, izmir, dalyan, antalya, marmaris, bodrum and other fabulous destinations. There isn’t any info about, say, the capital of ankara, which is a pretty sweet and modern city. no clue. We can say is that türkiye, the official name, has great internet connections and a world-class transportation matrix that is easily the equal of “advanced” european countries. you can apply here and the turks claim the process is nearly instantaneous. italy italy’s strategy when it comes to digital nomads has been – up till now – promise a lot, and deliver very little. Italian officials had talked about a 1 billion euro fund (where does all the money come from?) To lure digital nomads to the country’s estimated 2,000 ghost towns – villages in remote regions that have lost most of their populations to urban centers. As part of that project, the plan was to run broadband in to rural areas, according to forbes . (We heard this before in rural american towns and nothing happened there, either.) now, as of 4 april 2024, italy actually has a digital nomad visa, with the final version aimed at highly skilled internationals. Italy defines a digital nomad as a citizen of a non-eu state “who carries out a highly qualified work activity with the use of technological tools capable of allowing them to work remotely, both as a worker self-employed or as a collaborator or employee of a company even if not resident in italy.” the visa is open to dms who have an annual income of at least three times the minimum level required for exemption from compulsory participation in italy’s healthcare scheme, according to euronews . .. Just less than 30,000 euros in annual income. other requirements include: joining an insurance plan for the duration of your stay. Proving you have accommodations for the length of your stay. Proving you already have been a dn or remote worker for at least six months somewhere else. The digital nomad visa proposal was initially included in a draft decree in march 2022, part of a covid economic recovery bill that includes the goal of directing them to italy’s depopulated rural areas. that proposed legislation was for a dn visa good for up to one year and that appears to be the case with the final legislation. This isn’t a digital nomad visa you can just sign up for online. You’ll to book an in-person appointment at an italian consulate in your country of residence. the bbc post points out that venice and florence are already positioned to integrate digital nomads. And the wall street journal has a post that includes an interesting initiative in pontremoli. italy also has the visto per lavoro autonomo , a self-employment visa that’s really tough to get, or so our italy-based expats tell us. czech republic prague was an expat destination for decades, then lost its luster as other countries created digital nomad visas. Now, it’s getting a second act with a new digital nomad visa aimed specifically at highly skilled internationals in specific countries: australia, canada, japan, new zealand, south korea, taiwan, the united kingdom and the united states. applicants must have at least a bachelors in science, technology, engineering or maths or three years of work experience in the it industry. the new visa allows freelancers and remote employees to work from the country for one year. dns employed by a foreign company must meet the minimum income requirement of 60,530 czech krona, or 2,507 euros per month and work for a company with at least 50 employees. So no creating your own company that then “hires” you. freelancers must have at least 124,500 krona in their account, or $5,650. you can get the granular details here on the ministry of industry and trade website , which also has the email address to which you can apply. greece greece’s digital nomad visa has been in the works since 2021. Now, it’s finally law. Greece’s digital nomad visa is open to non-eu citizens who are remote workers, freelancers and/or entrepreneurs. as with other dn visas, you have to prove you can support yourself with work from companies outside greece. And minimal amount you must earn to qualify is surprisingly high (compared to portugal, let’s say) at 3,500 euros per month after tax deduction, 4,200 euros per month if you bring along a spouse or significant other. now, here’s the good part: the visa is valid for a stay of up to 12 months, after which you can apply for a digital nomad residence permit, which can be renewed two more years. With the new visa, greece – which already has a plethora of long-stay visa offerings and golden visas – is upping the ante with a 50-percent discount on personal income taxes. it would cuts the current tax rate in greece – 44 percent for annual personal income of more than 40,000 euros ($47,000), or 17,600 euros to 22 percent, or 8,800 euros, for seven years. there is, as you might suspect, a brexit component as a number of multinational banks are eyeing sending some operations to greece so they can continue to do business with the european union. And greece has been trying to lure back its best and brightest, who emigrated to the united states and other countries during the financial crisis. the downside is, you can’t apply online. You have to go to a consulate or embassy in your country of citizenship to start the process. Applicants need to schedule an appointment and bring along all necessary documents such as proof of income, etc. Successful applicants will be eligible to register for a residency permit when they arrive in greece. spain spain has joined the rest of europe in trying to attract digital nomads. The spanish digital nomad visa has been be available since january 2023 to talent from outside the european economic area working remotely under contract for non-spanish companies (and you have to prove you’ve worked for them for at least three months.) Spouses and kids can come, too. the good news is while the original legislation announced this past january only allowed six months in-country, the new law allows dns to stay up to five years. It gives digital nomads a tax break and startups a tax incentive. (We wondered how long it would be till some country figured out these two trends are intersecting.) The new laws are designed tp streamline the legendarily complex bureaucratic obstacles to starting a business. We’ll see ….. on the digital nomad side, the visa is good for six months, then renewable for another 12 and cut the non-resident tax rate to 15 percent on the first 600,000 euros from 24 percent. But you have to prove you earn at least 200 percent of the country’s monthly minimum wage – 2,334 euros per month or about 28,000 euros per year. but we’re still talking about spain, so there are lots of kinks to work out and you’re probably going to need an attorney somewhere along the line. Tnw has a solid post with most of the details. portugal that took long enough! even though portugal already is at the top of the list for european digital nomads, last month, portugal finally introduced legislation for a formal digital nomad visa. Only in october are the details final. And the details are favorable, with portugal instituting a low salary requirement. as of 30 october, the visa is available to those outside the eu making four times the national minimum wage, or about 2,800 euros per month, one of the lowest requirements in europe. (Compare that to norway below, which requires proof of a minimum income of 36,000 euros.) The portuguese visa will allow dns to live and work in portugal for up to 1 year and you can apply for long-term residence. And of course once you have it, you can travel anywhere in the eu. officially the “residence visa for the exercise of professional activity provided remotely outside the national territory,” the new digital nomad visa is designed to attract working professionals. And let’s be honest … younger ones as portugal’s population ages, with about 20 percent people over 65 years old. along with proof of income for the most recent three months, applicants must submit tax-residency documents and an employment contract, or proof of self-employment. You can apply at a portuguese consulate in your home country, or at portugal’s immigration agency, serviço de estrangeiros e fronteiras . business insider has a good summary. portugal, following the philosophy of “go big, or go home,” has had past initiatives aimed at dns even if the country didn’t have a visa. The portuguese island of madeira opened a digital nomad village on 1 february. the original effort was lead by startup madeira ceo carlos soares lopez, and you can see the full team here. This is all started as economic-development project developed by the regional government of madeira, through startup madeira, and appears to be for real. The “village” appears to be a group of hotels and hostels that are participating. you can register here. from everything we can find online, madeira actually has the infrastructure including shared working spaces and internet connections robust enough to support digital nomads. As our beth hoke can tell you , there are worse places to be a digital nomad than this scenic island in the atlantic. So why the heck not, right? germany while germany doesn’t have a digital nomad visa per se, it does have a freelance visa that allows digital nomads to live and work legally in the country. Called aufenthaltserlaubnis für selbständige tätigkeit, it’s available to non-eu citizens who want to stay in the country for up to one year. but this being germany – and this being a temporary residence visa – there’s nothing easy about it. There’s an application process that includes submitting lots of documents, in-person interviews and proof that you fill an economic void within the country and will benefit the economy. Which honestly, isn’t hard if you have hard skills because germany has a huge talent deficit. And you must prove you can support yourself, pay your rent and insurance with a 450 euro cushion per month. Did we mention that everything is in german? here are the details. here’s how lily cichanowicz got her freelance visa in berlin . republic of cyprus as of march, 2022, cyprus just increased the number of digital nomad visas they’ll grant to 500 from 100. (Hey, it’s a small island, and half of it is turkey.) digital nomad visas in cyprus are for highly skilled internationals working for foreign employers. The visa is granted for one year, with the right to renew it for another two years. You need to show proof of net income ( not gross) of 3,500 euros per month, medical coverage and you have to have a clean criminal record from your country of residence. your family can come with you, but they won’t be allowed to work. like most digital nomad visas, you can apply for this after you arrive, but no later than three months. you can see all the details here on the official cypriot government website , which include requirements for appointments and which records you need to provide to which government authorities. The fee to apply is 70 euros. the website and rules are actually detailed, helpful and clear and you can down load all the documents and application forms. latvia in february 2022, latvia became the latest baltic state to start the process of opening to digital nomads after neighboring estonia pretty much created the concept lo’ these many years ago with its e-residency for foreign entrepreneurs. Latvia’s proposed digital nomad visa would offer quite a bit of latitude, allowing you to stay one year (with an optional one-year extension) and work either as an employee of a foreign company or as a self-employed whatever it is you do-er. But you’ll have to prove you earn 2.5 times the monthly income of the average latvian, which is equivalent to about $2,000. of course, just like in every country, the digital nomad visa is meant to attract highly skilled internationals who add more to the economy than they take. And the visa is only available to foreign nationals employed by companies in the 37-country organization for economic co-operation and development (oecd). That includes all the countries in the eu, united kingdom and the united states. here’s a balanced look at what it’s like to be a digital nomad in the capital riga. norway how did we overlook norway? Because of its annual festivals , we knew that there’s a far-north outpost of this scandi country– the northernmost permanent settlement on earth – that welcomes anyone without a visa, though you have to have a job and a place to stay. Svalbard is home to the world’s northernmost brewery, church and uni … and is not everyone’s cup of aquavit. Though sifted has an interesting post that says svalbard is currently one of the more popular digital nomad destinations – in the top 10, anywho. here’s the immigration information if you’re really open to adventure. Because one of the sections of the svalbard website includes dealing with polar bears. No, really. And there’s also a caveat that living in svalbard “does not entitle you to residence or citizenship in mainland norway.” But apparently you can stay as long as you like, or at least until you’re eaten by the polar bears. now, if you want to work in norway as a whole, there is an independent contractor visa good for up to two years, but requires a minimum of 35,719 euro gross annual income plus a lot of other stuff. The application fee is 600 euros. You can apply here. ireland while ireland doesn’t have a digital nomad visa per se, if you are a non-eu/eea and non-swiss national you can apply for permission to do business under the immigration investor programme and start up entrepreneur programme . okay, we’re going to level with you … with a huge tech sector and financial industry, the republic of ireland is an expensive place to do anything including play tourist and live. We know. We’ve been there. But the irish are facing the same demographic gloom and doom as the rest of the europe, with about 14 percent of the population over 65 years old. So the republic needs to keep attracting young entrepreneurs to keep the irish tiger fed. enterprise ireland , ireland’s economic-development agency, has a deal for well-heeled global entrepreneurs. To qualify for an enterprise ireland competitive start fund gran t, you’ll need to demonstrate that your company is capable of creating at least 10 jobs and generate 1 million euros in sales over the first three years. the two funds for all sectors and women entrepreneurs amount to a combined total of 2 million euros. But apply via the enterprise ireland website asap. americans can travel to the republic (but not to northern ireland) without a visa and stay 90 days as tourists. Irelands also has a golden visa program if you qualify and can afford to invest 1 million euros in an irish company. So, if you’re going to do that, you might as well start your own. cape verde yes, we had to look this one up. Cape verde (or cabo verde in portuguese) is an island nation – a cluster of 10 arid volcanic islands – 300 miles off the coast of africa. If you consider it to be part of africa, then cape verde is a candidate for the continent’s most stable democracy. In the middle of the atlantic, it has a mild climate, high-speed internet connections and beaches and outdoor adventure amid rugged terrain. This drew almost 1 million tourists in 2019, but the tourists went away when the pandemic hit. sound like a good place to chill while you work? Cape verdeans hope that’s how you see it because they just created remote working cabo verde, a tax exempt digital nomad visa designed to attract 4,000 foreigners , specifically americans and europeans. Why 4,000? No idea … but the entire cape verde population is only about 550,000 people. The visa is valid for six months to one year. you can apply here. malta this one is a no-brainer. This mediterranean island nation has been a destination for every culture from the romans and the moors to the brits. English is an official language along with maltese and malta is part of the eu. As of early june, they’re offering a six-month digital nomad visa, with a kinda’ pricey fee of 300 euros. (Compare that to estonia below.) for that, you get to stay for six months, with an option to renew for up to one year. To qualify, you have to prove you have a contract with a foreign company, have your own company or have enough freelance business to support yourself. here’s the link to the application website. And malta just opened applications for a year-long digital nomad visa. if you’re not that familiar with malta, it has the third-highest population density in europe behind monaco and vatican city, so finding a place to stay might be a challenge. A lot of movies and series are shot there including “game of thrones” because as we’ve noted , the architecture is like nowhere else in europe. montenegro officials in montenegro are in the early stages of crafting new legislation for a digital nomad visa. This south balkans travel destination is using the working title of “program for attracting digital nomads and encouraging foreign investments in montenegro until 2025,” which doesn’t exactly trip off the tongue. But in competition with neighboring croatia, it’s likely the montenegran version will be just as aggressive. And though this country is little-known to americans, this is an i ncreasingly popular destination, with mountains (hence the name) and even a fjord or two. Montenegro also has a very limited golden visa program. romania this could be a winner … low cost of living, superior internet connection in a tech hub and some of the last great wilderness in europe. Anyway, as of late december, romania has one of the most affordable digital nomad destinations in the world, according to emerging europe . the deal is similar to other digital nomad visas – you must employed by a foreign firm, or offer services through a self-owned company located outside of romania. You can stay up to 6 months (maybe longer depending on the final version of the law.) But where romania shines is that the minimum annual income requirement to get the visas is much lower than, say, $94,000 in iceland. Under the new romanian legislation, the minimum income requirement has been set at three times the romanian gross average monthly wage (about 1,100 euros), so digital nomads must be able to prove they are have earned, and are currently earning, about 3,300 euros per month, or about 40,000 euros annually. (By the way, this requirement started at 1,900 euros in early drafts, but politics ….) part of this is to feed cluj-napoca’s demand for highly skilled internationals . Cluj has one of the most advanced it sectors in the world, attracting global giants including american multinationals, and is almost an economy into itself. Cluj-napoca hosts about 1,250 companies with more than 14,000 employees, accounting for about 10 percent of the city’s total number of employees. This means that 1 out of 11 active employees work in it. Bucharest also has a growing tech sector. curaçao “aha,” you’re saying, “this isn’t europe!” Well, curaçao kind of is because this caribbean island way, way down in the lesser antilles, is part of the kingdom of the netherlands. In the past few days, the government of curaçao has rolled out its @homeincuraçao program t hat, among other things, allows remote workers special access to work and live in on the island for six months (renewable for another six months) rather than the usual european union-standard 90-day tourist visa. The fee is about $300 (yes, curaçao uses dollars) and you have to buy health insurance. you can apply here. there are also new extended visas for investors and snow birds. unlike so much of the caribbean, the abcs (aruba, bonaire and curaçao) are stable because they are legally dutch provinces. And while the ganja is probably better in jamaica, this is a safer choice on every level including internet reliability. Finally, the capital and largest city, willemstadt, has more sophisticated retail than, say, sint maarten, because sooner or later, you’ll need a fresh tee-shirt and new pair of vans. croatia croatia is one of the latest european country to issue a digital nomad visa. Backed by a commitment by two split-based dutch agtech entrepreneurs to invest in this adriatic jewel, prime minister andrej plenkovi? Introduced legislation back during the pandemic for a digital nomad visa, an amendment to the foreigners act. And voilà, as of 2022, an american expat is the first person to get croatia’s digital nomad visa. Which has to be one of the fastest turnarounds ever. but we get it: croatia has all the ingredients – sea, lovely cities, educated workforce and a prime balkan location between austria on the north and greece to the south – to attract wealthy internationals by the droves. Oddly, the salary requirement for digital nomads in croatia is only $31,514 per year after taxes. Compare that to $50,000 in barbados and $94,000 in iceland. california-born melissa paul is a branding consultant, social media manager, and blog editor for design, travel, and lifestyle businesses, according to total croatia news. This post has all the details about the process of acquiring the new visa. the downside is, it’s only good for a year, according to the post about paul. It cannot be renewed or extended. After one year, the options are applying for a permanent residence permit or remaining as a tourist for 90 days. But, croatian officials just announced that digital nomads get to spend that year not paying any income tax. (you can see an interview here with jan de jong, one of the two dutch entrepreneurs who convinced the croatian government to create its digital nomad visa.) business insider has a great interview with an american video producer who’s relocated to croatia, with details about how much he spends each month (not much). here’s a very detailed post on the visa. estonia on 1 august 2020, estonia launched its digital nomad visa , with ambitions to attract 2,000 on-the-go people to this far north innovation center on the baltic sea. estonia has always been a net talent-exporter, with its techies leaving for london or stockholm to lay the digital foundations for multiple unicorns including skype and transferwise. Now, estonia wants to steal other countries’ best and brightest. the one-year visas will be available to digital nomads willing to spend part of their time working from the baltic state. (We recommend the summer.) The visa will allow people to stay in the country for 12 months, including 90 days of travel across europe’s 26-country schengen zone, which in and of itself will make this a hit. you can now apply at embassies and consulates just like you would for any other visa. But we’re guessing this launches a whole cottage industry of companies that will help you get this visa for a fee. who is eligible to apply? You can work anywhere remotely using telecommunications technology you have an active employment contract with a company registered outside of estonia; you conduct business through your own company registered abroad, or you work as a freelancer for clients mostly outside of estonia. You can prove your income meets the minimum threshold during the six months preceding the application. Currently, the monthly income threshold is 3,504 euros before taxes while you can’t apply yet online, you can subscribe to the newsletter here that will alert you when all this goes live. the fee is 80 euros for a type c (short stay) visa and 100 euros for the type d (long stay) visa. Forms can be submitted at the nearest embassy. georgia is georgia (the country, not the state) on your mind? Maybe it should be as this last of the exotic (sort of) european destinations is offering a digital nomad visa . Georgia, like every other country in the world, wants to attract highly skilled internationals who can contribute to the tax base. this country on the physical and psychological dividing line between europe and central asia/the middle east is inexpensive and, according to our expats , beautiful and inviting. this visa isn’t available yet, but when it is, you’ll apply here. Though there is a school of thought that says their 1-year tourist visa is a better option, and you don’t get taxed. So do your research. you can see more here on the workfromgeorgia website. iceland obscured by pandemics and presidential elections gone awry, iceland’s government announced in late october that it’s offering a remote worker visa to non-eu citizens with substantial incomes. How substantial? At least 1 million (yes, million ) icelandic króna, or about $7,300 – 6,200 euros – per month , according to the government website. More if you bring your family. they’re going to need it because iceland is the second most expensive country in europe behind switzerland, according to numbeo and other sources. Though the upside is, you become an instant millionaire after converting your currency of choice. The new visas allow foreigners to come work remotely for up to six months on this remote island of volcanoes, ice, snow, björk. Stunning scenery and the world’s most northerly capital city in reykjavik. now, the gritty details … the initiative states that you must be the permanent employee of a foreign company. So this is about offering people a very cool place to work remotely at a time global companies are allowing employees the freedom to work anywhere they want. It is not an invitation to come hangout first, then think about maybe getting a few clients for your freelance seo gig. but, you’re income won’t be taxed and foreign citizens will be allowed to apply for a long-term visa in iceland for teleworkers and bring their families without having to move their legal domicile to the country or obtain icelandic id numbers, according to the website. Þórdís kolbrún reykfjörð gylfadóttir, minister of tourism, innovation and industry, explains the thinking behind the new visa: we need to shape our export industry, based on ingenuity and by making it easier for foreign nationals to work from iceland, we add value, knowledge and connections in iceland that support our innovation environment. ‘nuf said. not in europe, but we hear it’s nice bali – bali is just one of many indonesian islands, but a fabled one. The one you envision from the movies when dreaming about running away to a tropical paradise. Now, balinese officials are making that fantasy come true, but only for digital nomads with serious resources. a new second-home visa will be available for up to 10 years starting 25 december 25, per a news release . you can apply for a second-home visa here . required documents include: • copy of passport that is valid for a minimum of 36 months; • proof of funds of at least rp2,000,000,000 (two billion rupiahs), which works out to about $130,000. • a recent color photograph (4 cm x 6 cm) with a white background. • your cv if you’re not familiar with bali, check out the new george clooney/julia roberts movie above. We’re thinking both can scrape together the required assets. barbados – here’s a no-brainer … work from the beach on one of the world’s lovliest islands, a favorite of british celebrities since the 1930s. With its five-star resorts, barbados was st. Barths before st. Barths became the caribbean destination in the 2000s. if elon musk were a digital nomad, this is where he’d be digitally nomading – with amber heard at sandy lane. now, barbados, of all places, is offering a digital nomad visa. On 1 july, 2020, barbados prime minister mia amor mottley announced a 12-month barbados welcome stamp to allow visitors the option to work remotely from barbados for a year at a time. “you don’t need to work in europe, or the us or latin america if you can come here and work for a couple months at a time; go back and come back,” the prime minister announced. you can apply here , and there is a hefty $2,000 fee involved. Also, you have to “expect” to make at least $50,000 during the next 12 months. (We expect to make millions … we hope that counts.) now, about that cost of living … cities such as tallinn and tbilisi are far less expensive cities than, say, copenhagen or amsterdam. The caribbean not so much. We are huge fans of the caribbean, but we know from experience that most things are more expensive just because everything has to be shipped in. that said, expatica and other crowd-sourced data mills indicate that bridgetown, the main city on barbados, has sort of affordable housing, about 40-percent less than amsterdam. so there you go … you heard it here first. bahamas – the caribbean is really heating up, and we don’t mean hurricane season. The bahamas just became the latest country to offer a long-term visa to digital nomads, the 12-month bahamas extended access travel stay program . This program is a bit different than those on other caribbean islands in that there doesn’t appear to be a requirement for earnings, just that you can prove you’re employed. The application fee is lower, as well – $25 bahamian, about $23 u.S. But if you get the visa, the fee is $1,000 bahamian. You can apply here. belize – this central american country with a caribbean coast just introduced its “work where you vacation” campaign, allowing you to work remotely for up to six months. The visa fee is a relatively affordable $500 but the income requirements are among the highest in the world. here are the requirements: • proof of employment outside of belize (minimum annual income of a whopping $75,000 for individuals, $100,000 for couples/families) • a notarized banking reference and statement of account • a clear criminal record (no more than 6 months old) • a valid passport • a travel insurance policy (min. Us $50,000 coverage) you can apply to immigration online here. bermuda – okay, crazy rich digital nomads, there’s a lux destination where you can work and count your money in a well-known tax haven. bermuda’s digital nomad 1-year digital nomad visa went live 1 august 2020 and you can apply here. Think of bermuda as the switzerland of the semi-tropical atlantic, close to new york city and with the well-oiled bureaucracy of that alpine bastion of banking. this being bermuda, the application cost is a bit high at $263. And yes, it states clearly in the faqs that you can indeed bring along your domestic staff. About 400 people (not counting maids and chauffeurs) arrived under the visa in the first six months. brazil – brazil adopted a digital nomad visa in january 2022 and it’s pretty straight-forward. You have to prove you have a long-term contract with a company outside brazil and earn at least the equivalent of $1,500 per month. The cost of application is about 100 euros, and the visa can be extended for up to two years. you can see all the details here on the official government website that includes a link to an on-line application. full disclosure: brazil has several cities on the list of the most dangerous in the world. canada – it’s one of the biggest countries in the world, yet hardly anyone lives there. So canada is now down with attracting highly skilled internationals. Canada’s new digital nomad visa is expected to roll out before the end of 2023. The new visa will allow dns to stay up to six months. Here’s the best part – there’s no salary threshold. Here’s the official immigration website, but dn visa applications haven’t opened, yet. colombia – starting october 22, dns will be able to set up residence in colombia by fulfilling one requirement: a minimum $684 in available funds monthly. Kpmg has a detailed post. costa rica – one of the few stable democracies in central america (along with panama and belize), costa rica scores big with all travelers from eco-tourists to digital nomads. It’s already high on the most of the “most popular countries with digital nomads” lists without a dedicated dn visa. Now, pushed by his tourism officials, costa rican president carlos alvarado approved legislation in 2021 to create one without actually calling it a digital nomad visa. Under the new law, “travelers” who make at least $3,000 a month from a foreign company will be able to get a one-year visa, renewable for an additional year. They can also open costa rican bank accounts, use their nation’s driver’s licenses and import needed work equipment tax-free, according to npr. costa rica just made the visa official, and you can see details here. ecuador – ecuador adopted the rentista for remote work visa in 2022. The processing fee is kinda high at 460 euros, but you only need to prove you earn about 1,300 euros per month to qualify for a year in this mountainous country, which also has beaches on the pacific ocean. We know friends who lived in quito for the u.S. Department of state and say it’s okay, though air pollution in the winter is an issue. we don’t see an online application, so try contacting the ecuadorian embassy in your country. indonesia – indonesia is now crafting a new visa to incentivize digital nomads to work from tourism destinations such as bali. The thing that sets this visa apart from other is that the plan is for it to be valid for up to five years, according to euronews , and live tax-free as long as their income is from companies outside the country. And see the new bali-specific visa above. japan – though it started in estonia as a european phenomenon, dn mania has spread to asia. Japan is the latest country announce a digital nomad visa, which is projected to go into effect at the end of march, 2024. This is not one of those “come work for years” renewable digital nomad visas. Japan is limiting stays to six months. unlike singapore, hong kong and other parts of asia, which are flooded with expats, japan has only about two million foreigners working in the country at present, according to euronews . Only in the last year has the country started promoting post-pandemic tourism of any kind. here are the details of the new visa: • citizens of 49 nations, including eu member states, are eligible. Also eligible are people from australia, armenia, belarus, georgia, iceland , liechtenstein, moldova, monaco, north macedonia, norway, serbia, singapore, south korean, switzerland, türkiye and the uk. • applicants must have an annual income of at least 10 millionajapanese yen (62,672 euros) to be eligible, and they must work for companies or clients outside japan. • spouses and kids can tag along. • the application window has not opened yet, so stay tuned. malaysia – malaysia introduced its dn visa on 1 october 2022. It allows digital nomads to stay up to one year, but they must work in it, digital marketing (influencers) or some technical sector for a non-malay company. The application fee is steep at about 215 euros. You can apply here . mauritius – this island in the indian ocean off madagascar is offering some of the most generous digital nomad visa terms in the world. Aside from the usual documents – passports, proof of health insurance – mauritius’s premium travel visa requires a minimum monthly income $1,500 for each applicant, and $500 per month for each dependent younger than 24 years old. And it’s good for one year. you can see the details here on the official website. montserrat – this island in the caribbean is basically half volcano (which buried the capital back in 1996), half tropical paradise. To revive its tourism sector, montserrat introduced a visa for remote workers . The island’s model follows other digital nomad approaches in that you must work for a foreign company (hence, are not taking a job from a local) and earn a lot of money to spend, in this case at least $70,000 american annually. Application fees are $500 for individuals; families up to three people, $750, then another $250 for every additional person over three family members. And we would add that if you’re bringing a family of 10 to montserrat, our personal experience is that living on a caribbean island – especially one this remote – is an expensive proposition. namibia – namibia just issued a digital nomad visa in october, 2022. So this is a new deal and the good news is, the income requirements are reasonable – $2,000 per month for yourself, $1,000 per month for an accompanying spouse, and $500 per month for each accompanying child. Namibia is on the northwest corner of south africa and has a lot of south africa’s draws – ocean, weather, wildlife – with far less crime. You can see all the official details here . saint lucia – this lush, authentic caribbean isle just started offering its live it digital nomad visa , good for up to one year. You apply apply directly to immigration via email visaoffice@police.Govt.Lc . You must apply at least two weeks out, and you’ll be notified one way or the other within five working days. You pay a few bucks for the visa the cost of the visa and there are no minimum income requirements. And boom! You’re working in one of the most beautiful places in the world. south africa – jo-berg and cape town – especially cape town – are already expat destinations. Now, south africa is on the verge of joining the small number of african countries – the first on the mainland – issuing digital nomad visas. At this point, the sa version seems pretty standard – stay in the country up to one year if you can prove you’re taking in $3,000 per month from foreign companies. You can see more details here. south korea – on 1 january 2024, south korea introduced its digital nomad visa allowing dns to stay in the country for up to two years if they can prove they’re working a remote job back home. It had better be a good job, paying gross annual income of more than 84.96 million korean won, or about $65,000. That’s double the gross national income per capita of korea. Korean officials are promoting this as a “workcation visa,” and allowing dns to bring their families. applicants can submit all documentation to the korean embassy in their respective country. at the same time, korea is introducing a k culture training visa to capitalize on the growing global influence of korean culture, food, movies and music. ‘k culture events’ will be held throughout 2024 spotlighting korean music, food and beauty. A ‘k tourism road show’ will also hit countries around the world from the us to sweden. if you’re into k-pop or work in the semiconductor industry , this could be the ticket. sri lanka – this island-nation in the indian ocean is pretty much in constant political turmoil. But it is tropical and it is growing more popular with digital nomads bored with, say, greece looking for the most exotic places to work. Club med has sri lanka at no. 2 on its list of the most popular countries for digital nomads . Why this chain of all-inclusive luxury hotels even keeps this list is a bit of mystery, but there it is. sri lanka placing so high on the list is particularly interesting because the country didn’t even have a dn visa. Until now. The government is in the process of creating one, but details at this point are all over the place. But it appears the visa will be good for one year. seychelles – down in the indian ocean off east africa, these tropical islands have introduced a “workation” visa and we love it. from the website: the ‘seychelles workcation’ program welcomes both self-employed visitors such as a company/business owner/freelancer or employed individuals namely, an employee to participate in the program. Visitors under the program to work remotely in seychelles for 30 days up to 1 year. Few requirements are necessary to qualify for the program. visitors must: have a valid passport. Provide documents as proof of being an employee/business owner. Provide proof of income or wealth hold a valid medical and travel insurance policy. You have to apply here at least 60 days before arrival. taiwan – as of july 2024, taiwan is planning on launching its digital nomad visa. In an announcement , national development council minister paul liu said he hopes the six-month visa will attract global talent and is aimed at highly skilled internationals. Liu said taiwan’s goal is attracting 120,000 hsis by 2028 – 60,000 international professionals, 50,000 international students and 10,000 digital nomads, taiwan is home to tsmc, the world’s largest maker of computer chips. So this visa will be of interest to engineers and physicists who want to spend a few months working on a project. We couldn’t find a portal on the government website, but digital nomads can travel to taiwan visa-free or with a tourist visa, then apply in taipei. read more here in the financial times about dn visa across southeast asia. thailand – chiang mai in thailand already is a major digital nomad hub . Now, the thai government is extending its digital nomad visa to five years from 60 days previously. The new rules went into effect on 1 june. however, there’s a catch – dns can’t stay five years straight. The visa allows for stays up to 180 consecutive days for a total of five years with reentry. So, the requirement is, visa holders must leave and reenter the country at the end of each 180-day period. depending on your country of origin, you can apply here. Or you can apply at the thai embassy in your country. united arab emirates – the uae just joined bermuda and barbados on the list of countries welcoming affluent digital nomads. Officials in this group of posh, futuristic gulf emirates just introduced in october their one-year “virtual working programme,” which comes with a lot of stipulations including being able to prove you have top-line monthly revenue of at least $5,000. but, the application fee of $287 is a lot more affordable than barbados, and you don’t pay any taxes in the uae. So, this is a doable proposition for most. Well, some …. you can see the details here including an application form. And dubai is running non-stop web ads trying to lure remote workers. uruguay: this south american country stands out from the rest of the continent for a number of reasons. First, it’s (relatively) affluent, with a high quality of life and low crime. Second, it has beaches and great weather. Third, techs services are exempt from taxes. So if you’re a developer or coder, you’re on easy street. If you’re spanish, portuguese, italian or german, you’ll find uruguayans who speak your language, though not english. the initial visa is good for 180 days, but you can apply to stay a full year. The best news is, there’s no minimum amount you must earn … yet. euronews notes this is a brand new digital nomad visa and rules, requirements and regulations could change. like many countries, you can’t apply for the dn visa until you’re actually on the ground. But here’s the form for your perusal. the economist has the best post about uruguay, one of south america’s most peaceful, tolerant countries – a place where most of the energy comes from the sun and wind power.
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    How Good Are Giannis Antetokounmpos Brothers? Exploring Alex, Kostas, & Thanasis
    Posted on Wednesday, July 24 @ 00:00:17 PDT (0 reads)
    College Guide Debate are giannis brothers living up to the antetokounmpo legacy, or are they just riding his coattails? For some, the aspiration for sport seems to be in the blood! From [shaquille o’neal](https://www.Essentiallysports.Com/tag/shaquille-oneal/)’s children to [lebron james](https://www.Essentiallysports.Com/tag/lebron-james/)’ sons, the drive to excel in basketball seems to have passed down the generations. For [giannis antetokounmpo](https://www.Essentiallysports.Com/tag/giannis-antetokounmpo/), his parent’s sporting careers (his father was a soccer player and his mother is a former high jumper) not only motivated him but his siblings as well. If one were to ask the nba player, then he would certainly place the talents of his brothers, thannis, kostas, and alex, on a high pedestal. The 29-year-old ‘greek freak’ is set to represent greece in the 2024 paris olympics. As part of a promotional effort, he engaged in a q&a, by the official x account of fiba. When asked about the “three toughest opponents” that he would find hard to guard, giannis straightaway proceeded to name his brothers! As to why he named his brothers, that answer was left for us to figure out. Did we bring back some childhood memories? ???? [#Paris2024]x [#basketball] [pic.Twitter.Com/ta7xxkkyx5] — fiba (@fiba) [july 23, 2024] advertisement article continues below this ad poll of the day who do you think has the brightest future among giannis antetokounmpos brothers? Alex kostas thanasis none of them therefore, without any further delay, let us discuss how good giannis’ brothers are. Francis antetokounmpo the eldest of the five siblings, francis, is the only one who wasn’t born in greece. He was born in lagos, nigeria, where his father played soccer. After dad’s retirement, they moved to greece. Unlike his younger brothers, francis never played professional basketball. Instead, he followed in his father’s footsteps and pursued a soccer career and plied his trade at ae sparti and aittitos spaton. Interestingly, he’s also a music artist, and he goes by his middle name ‘ofili’. Thanasis antetokounmpo the second-eldest antetokounmpo developed an aspiration for basketball very early on. But he continued to sell watches, handbags, and sunglasses along with giannis to help make ends meet. As thansis turned 16, he started playing for efao zografou b.C.’S junior team, popularly known as filathlitikos. It took him 3 years before the club allowed him to play at the professional level. The future nba player first rose to the spotlight in his second senior season, when he averaged 12.2 points alongside just under 5 rebounds and 1 assist. While he was not selected to play in 2013’s greek all-star game, a few influential coaches still got him as a special participant. When giannis went on to declare for the 2013 nba draft, thanasis followed but withdrew at the last moment. He returned a year later, after spending a season with the delaware 76ers of the nba d-league. During his brief tenure, he played 50 games, averaging 12 points, 4.3 rebounds, and a little over 2 assists. His entry into the nba in 2014 (51st overall pick) saw him join the westchester knicks for two seasons. He would then sign a 10-day contract with the new york knicks. Meanwhile, giannis was already establishing his footing at the milwaukee bucks. Thanasis also played in the summer league for the knicks, but he could only average 3 points and just under 2 rebounds. In a couple of games, he played for the ny franchise in the 2016 regular season, his performances didn’t really improve. The knicks chose to not renew the player’s contract, and he didn’t return to the nba court until 2019. While joining the bucks allowed him to reunite with giannis, the tough competition wouldn’t allow him to perform. Today, after having played for 5 seasons in milwaukee, his average score stands at 2.4 points, 1.6 rebounds, and 0.6 assists per game and the recent 2023-24 season saw him put up only 0.9 points per game. Kostas antetokounmpo growing up, kostas was provided an opportunity that wasn’t easily available to his brothers. He kicked off his basketball career in the dominican high school in wisconsin. It was made possible after giannis was drafted to the bucks allowing him and his family to relocate to america. Unlike his elder brothers, kostas went to an american college, playing for the university of daytona for two seasons. In 2018, he declared for the nba draft. After being taken in by the mavericks, kostas didn’t get many opportunities to play during his rookie season, only appearing in 2 games. After being hired by the los angeles lakers as the dallas side waived him, he appeared in 15 games in the 2020-21 season. However, there was no improvement from his previous stint, since kostas averaged a mere 0.8 points, 1.3 rebounds, and 0.1 assists. His nba tenure then came to an end after he signed a two-way contract with the bulls and was waived without playing a single nba game for the franchise. Despite his not-so-noteworthy experience with the nba, kostas did have some success while being a part of greece’s national team. During the 2016 fiba europe under-20 championship division b, his team secured the bronze medal. Alex antetokounmpo advertisement article continues below this ad the youngest of the siblings, alex, followed in kostas’ footsteps, pursuing basketball right from his high school days. However, he chose not to take his talents to the us. Releasing a statement in 2020, he expressed his wish to play overseas. “I was born and raised in europe, i know european basketball and the best thing for me would be to sign a contract with a european club.” Before this decision, 247 sports had rated him as a 3-star prospect, and he had already received an offer from the wisconsin-green bay. Heading to spain, alex signed with ucam murcia from the liga acb league in june 2020. His reserve team debut was noteworthy, as he scored 28 points and 6 rebounds, going 6-9 from deep! On the main roster, he played only one game, which did not yield any points. After joining the sacramento kings in the nba summer league, his performance in 4 games wasn’t the best, as alex could only average 0.5 points, and 0.75 rebounds with close to no presence from the shooting aspect. Advertisement article continues below this ad things slightly improved for the youngest antetokoumpo after he switched 3 different teams in 3 years, two of them being in the g league. Currently playing for the m basket mažeikiai club based in lithuania, his recent season saw the player averaging 8.6 points, 2.5 rebounds, and 0.2 assists. Having lived with his brothers for years, giannis antetokounmpo may know more about their skills than us. This is what may have caused him to blurt out their three names in the q&a. Having averaged 29.9 points, 11.5 rebounds, and 6 assists in his last four seasons with the bucks, the majority of players around the greek freak’s age are far from coming close to the player’s standards.
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    Currently and on last 2 h
    Posted on Wednesday, July 24 @ 00:00:17 PDT (0 reads)
    College Guide Currently and on last 2 hours, these online publications were read, viewed, on environmental science innovations; posts: tags: explanation of novelty, ecology, top publications, ?????, ???????? ? ????????????? ????????, ??????, ???,University antwerp, uppsala univer, citation success, 32 reviews, explanation of novelty, ecology, top publications, environmental science, links, full texts free, world catalog, the best and largest global library catalog. Key words: reviews, publications, articles, ecology, environmental, top, water, quality, filtration, self-purification, toxicology, ecotoxicology, environment, protection, safety, biogeochemistry, gold, world catalog, ? 4 ? N new results, 18 innovations in ecology, environmental science. Fulbright award posted by dr green 3 ? ????? «???????? ? ????????????? ????????» - ??????, ???-?? ???, 1986, ?????? ????????????? ????, ????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ?. ?. ????????? - ????? ???????, ??????????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ??????? ?????????? Posted by dr green 2 ? ???????? ? ????????????? ????????. 1986. ?.: ???-?? ???. 176 ?., [?????] ?????: ?.?.????????? (??? ??. ?.?.??????????);????????? ?????? ? ????????? ?? ????? ????????, ???????? ? ?????, ????????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????????, ????????????? ????????. Posted by dr green 2 ? Citation of: ostroumov sa (2002) polyfunctional role of biodiversity in processes leading to water purification: current conceptualizations and concluding remarks. Hydrobiologia 469: 203-204. Doi: 10.1023/a:1015555022737 this paper was cited in the article: integrated outdoor culture of two estuarine macroalgae as biofilters for dissolved nutrients from sparus aurata waste waters. Hernández i., Fernández-engo m.A., Pérez-lloréns j.L., Vergara j.J. Journal of applied phycology. Posted by dr green 2 ? W worldcat 32 favorable reviews of articles, publications, environment, top national university, environmental, protection, ecology, water, filtration, water quality, aquatic, toxicology, ecotoxicology, surfactants, detergents, mollusks, mollusca posted by dr green 2 ? C citation success. University of antwerp, uppsala university, universite libre de bruxelles, universite catholique de louvain, museum national d’histoire naturelle (paris), helmholtz centre for environmental research (ufz, germany), ghent university, ghent university, 22 universities and institutions of 5 european countries co-authored a research paper that cited the msu ecology article: polyfunctional role of biodiversity in processes leading to water puri?Cation: current conceptualizations and concluding remarks. Hydrobiologia. 469: 203–204; full text online free: https://www.Academia.Edu/1900592/; more info is here: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/06/22-top-universities-and-institutions.Html posted by dr green 1 ? Top-10, most viewed, last 7 days, posts: top-10, high impact, on last 6 months, most-viewed, posts and publications on environmental science: posts u.K., Britain cited (favorably) research results of msu (moscow state university), in 2020, environmental research, aquatic ecosystem function, water self-purification, results of award-winning researcher; ___ in 2020, in u.K., A new citation of moscow state university research in environmental science was made; the cited article: some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders; full text free: https://www.Academia.Edu/41039799/ ; https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2020/12/britain-cited.Html ; ___ the citation was made in the article: design and implementation of two surveys targeted at describing fouling communities and identifying non-native species within active ports; s holmes, r callaway - journal of the marine biological association of the …; ports have long been considered high-risk areas for the introduction of non-native species (nns) and should therefore be a focus of nns monitoring. The industrial nature of active ports can, however, provide various problems when attempting to carry out monitoring programmes. Current methodologies designed to identify nns and to describe fouling communities have not been developed specifically for use in active ports and can encounter a number of issues when used in these …; ___ •cites: some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders; ___ the full reference of the cited paper: ostroumov, sa (2005) some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. Hydrobiologia 542, 275–286. Full text free: https://www.Academia.Edu/41039799/ ; ___ info on this article: https://link.Springer.Com/article/10.1007/s10750-004-1875-1 ; samuel holmes- affiliation: college of science, biosciences, swansea university, singleton park, swansea sa2 8pp, wales, uk; ___ ruth callaway- affiliation: college of science, biosciences, swansea university, singleton park, swansea sa2 8pp, wales, uk; corresponding e-mail address: sam.J.Holmes1@gmail.Com; the british paper that cited ostroumov, 2005 (moscow university): holmes, s., & Callaway, r. (2020). Design and implementation of two surveys targeted at describing fouling communities and identifying non-native species within active ports. Journal of the marine biological association of the united kingdom, 1-14. Doi:10.1017/s0025315420001150; tags: citation analysis, u.K., Britain, cited favorably,swansea university,united kingdom, msu, 248 ? India: universities and institutions which cited the environmental science papers and books out out of this list of relevant bibliography, the list of bibliography is here: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/04/953-useful-links-simple-format-list_23.Html ; examples of other more that 300 universities and institutions that cited these papers are here: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/05/300-institutions-cited.Html ; __ indian institutions which made these citations are below (some selected examples only): 2 periyar university,salem, india: __ 1 indian institute of technology kanpur __ karunya institute of technology & sciences,= karunya univ. ; __ vellore institute of technology; __ amrita center for nanosciences csir-indian institute of chemical technology, hyderabad and many others, to be continued __ 214 ? Last 20 posts. 953 useful papers with links, simple format list of relevant papers, useful bibliography, with web-addresses, websites to get full-texts free, edited, improved, updated 30.06.2024. Links to relevant publications and files, environmental science, bioscience, water, ecotoxicology: publications, results of research conducted at msu, moscow state university, last editing made 30.06.2024; more info see these links: dr green dr green published • jun 30 in japanese bioscience ecotoxicology environmental science files in chinese in korean publications water ? 0 ? 1 ? C cited in china, favorably: ??????????????????????????????????????????????????? 2024 ?????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??? 2024 ? 6 ? 30 ?? Https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/06/china-cited-these-ecology-papers.Html ; ????? Https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/06/sum-of-info-on-recent-citations-of.Html ; __ ?????????2024????????????????? ??????????????????? Russ. J. Gen. Chem., 83 (13) (2013), pp. 2614-2617??????Https://www.Academia.Edu/27074231/ ; [???????????????] ?Https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/04/china-northeast-normal-university-cited.Html ; ??????????????????????????????????Y zhang, x sun, f wang, t su, s yang, s ai, d bian, h huo. __ 2024??????????????????????????????????????????? Https://www.Academia.Edu/2922688/ ; ??????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????Https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/06/the-top-university-in-japan-and-asia.Html ; __ 2024??????????????????????????????????????????????? Https://www.Academia.Edu/2922688/ ;??????????????????????????????????????????????Https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/06/the-top-university-in-japan-and-asia.Html ; 2024??????????????????????????????????????????????????Https://www.Academia.Edu/2922688/ ; ??????????????????????????????????????????????Https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/06/the-top-university-in-japan-and-asia.Html ; 2024????????????????????????????????????????????? Https://www.Academia.Edu/2922688/ ; ???????“????????? (Dinophyceae) ??????????????????”????? ?????Https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/06/the-top-university-in-japan-and-asia.Html ; 2024??????????????????????????????????????????? Https://www.Academia.Edu/2922688/ ; ???????“????????? (Dinophyceae) ??????????????????”??????????Https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/06/the-top-university-in-japan-and-asia.Html ; 2024???????????????????????????????????????????? Https://www.Academia.Edu/2922688/ ; ???????“????????????????????????????????”???? ?????Https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/06/the-top-university-in-japan-and-asia.Html ; 2024????????????????????????????????????????? Https://www.Academia.Edu/2922688/ ; ???????“????????? (Dinophyceae) ??????????????????”?????????Https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/06/the-top-university-in-japan-and-asia.Html ; 2024????????????????????????????????????????? Https://www.Academia.Edu/2922688/ ; ???????“????????? (Dinophyceae) ??????????????????”?????????Https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/06/the-top-university-in-japan-and-asia.Html ; 2024?????????????????????????????????????????????Https://www.Academia.Edu/2922688/ ; ???????“???????????????”???; __ northwest a&f university, cited the article: studying effects of some surfactants and detergents on filter-feeding bivalves. Https://www.Academia.Edu/2922688/ dr green dr green published • jun 30 approved citation cited ecology environmental science favorably mentioned water ?? ? ? 0 ? 9 ? 2 2024, china, foshan university, cited the article: studying effects of some surfactants and detergents on filter-feeding bivalves. Https://www.Academia.Edu/2922688/ ; this citation was made in paper titled: physical drivers of noctiluca scintillans (dinophyceae) blooms outbreak in the northern taiwan strait: a numerical study. More info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/06/the-top-university-in-japan-and-asia.Html ; chinese (traditional): 2024??????????????????????????????????????? Https://www.Academia.Edu/2922688/?????????????????????????????????????????????????Https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/06/the-top-university-in-japan-and-asia.Html? Chinese (simplified) 2024????????????????????????????????????????? Https://www.Academia.Edu/2922688/ ; ???????“????????? (Dinophyceae) ??????????????????”???? ????? Https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/06/the-top-university-in-japan-and-asia.Html ; dr green dr green published • jun 30 ? 0 ? 3 ? N new. 2024. New citation of the biosorption article tilted: biosorption of copper by biomass of extremophilic algae. Https://www.Academia.Edu/89860049/ ; this is the article that was cited (favorably), the full reference, cite is as: ostroumov sa, shestakova tv, tropin iv (2015) biosorption of copper by biomass of extremophilic algae. Russ j gen chem, 85(13):2961–2964. Https://doi.Org/10.1134/s1070363215130150 ; the full text online free: https://www.Academia.Edu/89860049/ ; article cas google scholar the citation of this article was made in: role of extremophiles in the removal of heavy metal and e-waste cs aishwarya, t prusty, kd mashakhetri, f bast - trends in biotechnology of …, 2024. Extremophiles flourish in environments that are intolerably unpleasant or even deadly. Arctic cold, extremely hot niches, and saline lakes are examples of these extreme circumstances. Some extremophiles can thrive in the presence of organic …; aishwarya, c.S., Prusty, t., Mashakhetri, k.D., Bast, f. (2024). Role of extremophiles in the removal of heavy metal and e-waste. In: shah, m.P., Dey, s. (Eds) trends in biotechnology of polyextremophiles. Springer, cham. Https://doi.Org/10.1007/978-3-031-55032-4_15 dr green dr green published • jun 30 biosorption e-waste extremophiles polyextremophiles trends biomass biotechnology citation cited copper extremophilic algae heavy metal removal ? 0 ? 11 ? C china et al. Cited these ecology papers in 2024. Sum-up of info on recent citations of useful, innovative, trend-setting articles on environmental science, water, aquatic ecotoxicology, water self-purification, especially in 2024, including citations made by scientists in china, and other countries; updated 30.06.2024; https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/06/china-cited-these-ecology-papers.Html ; dr green dr green published • jun 30 2024 articles china useful aquatic ecotoxicology environmental science innovative recent citations trend-setting water water self-purification ? 0 ? 8 ? 953 useful links, simple format list of relevant papers, useful bibliography. Https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/06/featured-innovative-papers-953.Html ; https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/06/953-useful-links.Html ; edited, improved, updated 29.06.2024. Links to relevant publications and files, environmental science, bioscience: publications, results of research conducted at msu, moscow state university, last editing made 12.06.2024; https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/05/953.Html ; https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/06/953-useful-links-simple-format-list-of.Html ; previously posted as: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/04/953-useful-links-simple-format-list_23.Html 953 useful links: 1. ???????? – ????? Xxi ????. Https://www.Academia.Edu/2323801/ 2. New definitions of the concepts and terms ecosystem and biogeocenosis: …, affiliation: m.V. Lomonosov moscow state university; [ecology, fundamental concepts, terminology, innovations, biology]; https://www.Academia.Edu/2922466/ 3. List of 40+ titles: ecology, environmental science, scopus, springer, publications, with links to files online, novelty explanation, with pictures, top, bibliography, articles, papers, lomonosov moscow state university …; https://www.Academia.Edu/37995494/ 4. Cai x., Ostroumov s.A. Toxic effect produced by liquid laundry detergent on lens culinaris // fundamental basis of biogeochemical technologies and prospects of their application in nature protection, agriculture and medicine. Https://www.Academia.Edu/53516135/ 5. [????????? ???????] ????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ????????. ????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. (???.): Https://www.Academia.Edu/42317341/ 6. ??????? ????????????? ????????????-???????? ??????? ?? ?????????????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????. ?.?.?????????: Journal, ?????? ???????. Https://www.Academia.Edu/790428/ ; http://www.Scribd.Com/doc/57648846/ 7. Polyfunctional role of biodiversity in processes leading to water purification: current conceptualizations and concluding remarks; https://www.Academia.Edu/1900592/ 8. Water quality and conditioning in natural ecosystems: biomachinery theory of self-purification of water. // Rus. Journal of general chemistry, 2017, vol.87 (13): 3199–3204. Ostroumov s.A.; In english. Https://www.Academia.Edu/44021682/ 9. ??????? ??????? ? ???????????? ? ?????????? ?????. 2012. Https://www.Academia.Edu/2324084/ 10. Biological filtering and ecological machinery for self-purification and bioremediation in aquatic ecosystems: towards a holistic view; research article; keywords: water quality, ecology, aquatic toxicology, ecotoxicology, https://www.Academia.Edu/1900925/ 11. Cai x., Ostroumov s.A. Discovery of detergent toxicity using non-animal bioassay. Biogeochemical innovations, vol. 2, p. 216–219 (2020). Https://www.Academia.Edu/44455943/ 12. Biological effects of surfactants; book; [ecotoxicology of detergents, synthetic surfactants]; https://www.Academia.Edu/826799/ 13. Suspension-feeders as factors influencing water quality in aquatic ecosystems. Page 147. In book: the comparative roles of suspension-feeders in ecosystems; https://www.Academia.Edu/56798498/ 14. ??????-??????????? ?????????????? ? ????? ? ?????? ? ???????? ?.?. ???????????. ??????, 2009, ???? ?????. ??? ???. ????. ?.?. ??????????????. (?????: ?????. ???????????. ?????????. ?????? 10). Isbn 978-5-317-03005-6. Https://www.Academia.Edu/1124807/ 15. Conservation of living nature and resources: problems, trends, and prospects. Book. Https://www.Academia.Edu/858504/ 16. ????????? ?.?. ? ???? ????? ? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????. ????????? ???????????????? ??????? // ??????????? – ??????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????? ????????, 2019, ?. 61–63: https://www.Academia.Edu/44499784/ 17. ??????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????: ????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ???? // ???????????. ??????????????. ?????????????, 2018; ???????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?.; Https://www.Academia.Edu/40473097/ 18. 2762 researchers who cited this scientist: environmental sci., Ecology, biology, water. Citation in russia… ?????? ????. ???? (???). ??? ????????? ????? ??????? ? ??????. 2762 ??????. ????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???????. Https://www.Academia.Edu/31589282/ 19. Biological filtering and ecological machinery for self-purification and bioremediation in aquatic ecosystems: towards a holistic view; ostroumov s.A., Affiliation: m.V. Lomonosov moscow state university; [ecology, biology, water quality, water self-purification]: https://www.Academia.Edu/2922494/ 20. ???????????? ???????? ? ????????. Https://www.Academia.Edu/994570/ http://www.Scribd.Com/doc/68220680/; http://www.Scribd.Com/doc/68087440/ 21. On the multifunctional role of the biota in the self-purification of aquatic ecosystems; https://www.Academia.Edu/1893226/ 22. Studying effects of some surfactants and detergents on filter-feeding bivalves; sodium dodecylsulfate , sds, cationic surfactant, tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide,tdtma, crassostrea gigas, mytilus galloprovincialis, m. Edulis, mussels, oysters, https://www.Academia.Edu/2922688/ 23. ???????? ?????? ?.?.??????????? ? ???????? ? ????????? ??????????. Pages 70–75; https://www.Academia.Edu/53265461/ 24. 7 selected papers on environmental science, ecology, water quality, environmental safety, aquatic ecotoxicology; https://www.Academia.Edu/5180835/ 25. Ex-living matter: a new fundamental concept in modernizing the classification of the main types of matter in the biosphere. In: fundamental basis of biogeochemical technologies, 2021, pages 415–419; https://www.Academia.Edu/53281702/ 26. Book: ????????????? ? ????????????? ???????. Ecological and biological systems??–? Moscow?:? Maks?Press,? 2018. (?Ecological?Studies,?Hazards,? Solutions.?Volume?25). Https://www.Academia.Edu/40472694/ 27. Ecuador.Citation.2016; ecosistema; ecuador cited book … conservation of living nature, in spanish; a.V. Yablokov, s.A. Ostroumov. Conservación de la naturaleza viva : problemas y perspectivas; moscu: vneshtorgizdat, 1989; 237 p.; Https://www.Academia.Edu/40409660/ 28. ???????? ? ????????????? ???????? / Introduction to biochemical ecology; book; https://www.Academia.Edu/864612/ 29. Biomachinery for maintaining water quality and natural water self-purification in marine and estuarine systems: elements of a qualitative theory; s.A. Ostroumov. International journal of oceans and oceanography. Vol.1, no.1 (2006), p. 111; https://www.Academia.Edu/44091281/ 30. Scipeople.Com; environment, ecology, online free. English, russian; environmental science, biology, aquatic toxicology, water quality, water self-purification, bioassay of detergents, surfactants, filter-feeders, bivalves, 226 p., List of 365 files, links, https://www.Academia.Edu/11777033/ 31. ?????? ?????? ????? ???????. ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????????; Https://www.Academia.Edu/78400554/ 32. ????????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ????????????-???????? ??????? ?? ?????????; ?.?.???????, ????????. ???????? ?? ?????: Https://www.Academia.Edu/864593/ 33. Istoricul factorilor ecologici chimici ai mediului ambiant. Prof. Dr. I. Dediu [institute ecology and geography (acad. Sci. Of moldova) ] genesis and evolution of the research on the chemical factors of the environment. – Akademos, number 4 (31), 2013, p. 77–81. Https://www.Academia.Edu/5995563/ 34. Wprowadzenie do ekologii biochemicznej. [=Introduction to biochemical ecology]; warszawa: wydawnictwo naukowe pwn. Author: s.A.Ostroumow. Isbn-13: 9788301104542; isbn-10: 8301104546. Https://www.Academia.Edu/865074/ 35. ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????: ?????? ????????????? ????????????? ??????????? // ???????????, ??????????????, ?????????????. – 2018. – ? 10. – ?. 12–15. ????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?.; Https://www.Academia.Edu/40473300/ 36. 900 publications that cited sergei ostroumov, in russian. Citation, who cited. 900 ??????, ??????????? ?? ????? ???, ?????????? ????????????? ?.?.?…., ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????, ????????, ?????????? ?????, ????????, ????, ?????? ???????. 108 ?.; Https://www.Academia.Edu/31591108/ 37. ?.?. ?????????, ?.?.??????????. ?????????????? ???????????? ???? ??????? ? ???????????: ????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????. Research article, pdf. Https://www.Academia.Edu/2327713/ 38. Toxicity testing of chemicals without use of animals. Ostroumov s.A. Russian journal of general chemistry. 2016, vol. 86, no. 13, pp. 2933–2941. Https://www.Academia.Edu/works/44042634/ 39. Decreasing the measurable concentrations of cu, zn, cd, and pb in the water of the experimental systems containing ceratophyllum demersum: the phytoremediation potential; https://www.Academia.Edu/1936807/ 40. Phytotoxicity of a surfactant-containing product towards macrophytes. Russian journal of general chemistry. [Aquatic toxicology, detergent, water higher plant] . Paper in english. Https://www.Academia.Edu/27074231/ 41. Ecology articles (scopus) in eng.: Doklady biological sciences, russian journal of general chemistry; environmental science, water quality, water self-purification, aquatic ecosystems, biology, innovations, lomonosov moscow university …; https://www.Academia.Edu/37989611/ 42. Ostroumov s.A. An aquatic ecosystem: a large-scale diversified bioreactor with a water self-purification function. – Doklady biological sciences, 2000. Vol. 374, p. 514–516. Https://www.Academia.Edu/60151933/ ; https://www.Academia.Edu/68650464/ ; scribd.Com/doc/49065542 43. Environmental toxicology of detergents. Key publication to be used as textbook: biological effects of surfactants; (among 100 bestsellers in toxicology); https://www.Academia.Edu/2133599/ 44. Criteria for assessing ecological hazards of man-made impact on biota: searching for a system; https://www.Academia.Edu/1900879/ 45. ???????????????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? ?????? ???????? ? ??????????? ? ???????? ????????. ? ??.: ??????????????? ?????? ???????????????? ??????????, ?. 297–302. [Ex-living matter, e.L.M., Detritus, biodetritus]. Https://www.Academia.Edu/53656290/ 46. ????????????? ???????????????? ??? ????????? ? ???????-??????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ? ?????? ?????. Pp. 83–84. Https://www.Academia.Edu/95160463/ 47. 1000 publications that cited articles of this series of papers and books on environmental science, biology, ecology, water; https://www.Academia.Edu/51075200/ 48. ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????. ???????????? ? ???????????????. 2010. ???????? ?.?.; ???????????? ?.?.; ???????, ?.?.; ??????, ?.?.; ... ???????, ?.?.; ????????, ?.?.; ???????, ?.?.; … ???????, ?.?.; ?????????, ?.?.; ???????, ?.?.; ??????, ?.?.; ???????, ?.?.; ????????, ?.?.; …; Https://www.Academia.Edu/72540545/ 49. ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????. ???????????? ? ???????????????. ???????? ?.?.; ???????, ?.?.; … ???????, ?.?.; ??????, ?.?.; ???????????, ?.?.; ???????, ?.?.; ??????????, ?.?.; ???????, ?.?.; ?????????, ?.?.; ???????, ?.?.; ??????, ?.?.; ???????, ?.?.; ????????, ?.?.; …; Https://www.Academia.Edu/72530241/ 50. 100 top publications, biology, environmental sciences life sciences, water science, ecology. Sergei ostroumov. Moscow state university. Database of googlescholar; https://www.Academia.Edu/44681471/ 51. Biochemical ecology. Monograph. Introduction to biochemical ecology. S.A. Ostroumov. In rus. ???????? ? ????????????? ????????; Https://www.Academia.Edu/45182724/ 52. Most viewed articles (100 plus), online library scribd, on ecology, environment, biology; in english, in russian, with links, available free, ????????; Https://www.Academia.Edu/42325606/ 53. Interview. ????????. ? ????????? ????????, ?? ?????????-???? ???????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????. Https://www.Academia.Edu/5227924/ 54. 270 p. List of bibliography – ecology, environment, biology, english, russian. Up to 2009. Environmental, sci., Ecotoxicology, water, self-purification, bioassay, hazard assessment, aquatic, freshwater, marine, filter-feeders, seedlings, surfactants, detergents, https://www.Academia.Edu/8141193/ 55. Innovative aquatic ecotoxicology: [keywords: water quality, ecotoxicology, aquatic toxicology]; https://www.Academia.Edu/3327894/ 56. Levels of nature conservation. Yablokov a.V., Ostroumov s.A. [Book in russian: urovni okhrany zhivoi prirody / ?????? ?????? ????? ???????. ??????? ?.?., ?.?.?????????]; ?????? ????? ?????: Https://www.Academia.Edu/27074327/ 57. ????????????? ?????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ???????: ????????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????: Research article, ecology, ecotoxicology; https://www.Academia.Edu/2525080/ 58. ???????? ? ???????? ????????????? ????????: ??????????-???, ???????? ?????????, ?????? ????? / ?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ?????????. – ?.: ?????, 1990. – 288 ?. Isbn 5-02004062-2. Https://www.Academia.Edu/1304050/ 59. 112 page list of achievements, links, environmental science, ecology, water, biology; rg. 08.09.2017; rtf; https://www.Academia.Edu/37995649/ 60. Biodiversity protection and quality of water: the role of feedbacks in ecosystems. Https://www.Academia.Edu/876882/ 61. The concept of aquatic biota as a labile and vulnerable component of the water self-purification system. – Doklady biological sciences, vol. 372, 2000, pp. 286–289. Http://www.Scribd.Com/doc/49069991 62. 24 pages, summary of results in a series of publications on: environmental science, general biology; https://www.Academia.Edu/27039923/ 63. The effect of synthetic surfactants on the hydrobiological mechanisms of water self-purification. Https://www.Academia.Edu/790306/ 64. Conservation of living nature and resources: problems, trends, and prospects. A.V. Yablokov, s.A. Ostroumov. 36 figures, 34 tables. First 11 pages. Table of contents. Https://www.Academia.Edu/45623432/ 65. Egypt and saudi arabia: citation of the publication of s.A.Ostroumov in the article in the journal: american journal of environmental engineering; keywords: water, water quality, water pollution, pollution source, water treatment, water self-purification, https://www.Academia.Edu/40353384/ 66. 50, w.Explanations,w.Bull..Doc; list of titles of 50 publications on environmental science; with explanation of innovations in these publications, including explanation of terminology. With useful links to online files. Https://www.Academia.Edu/37979244/ 67. Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders; https://www.Academia.Edu/1893477/ 68. ? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????. ???????? ??????. Https://www.Academia.Edu/958920/ 69. Biological activity of waters polluted with a liquid surfactant-containing detergent; research article on aquatic toxicology, ecotoxicology; https://www.Academia.Edu/1902638/ 70. Biocontrol of water quality: multifunctional role of biota in water self-purification. Https://www.Academia.Edu/1892485/ 71. ? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????? –????????????? ???????????????? ????????? (?????????, 2020). Https://www.Academia.Edu/works/44440277/ 72. Explanation. 3 papers. Environmental science. With very simple explanation of what is new. Ecology, water, environment, safety, sustainability. Http://ru.Scribd.Com/doc/122740980/ ; https://www.Academia.Edu/2479261/ 73. Medium-term and long-term priorities in ecological studies. Https://www.Academia.Edu/782325/ 74. Citation of research of moscow univ. (S.A.Ostroumov), cited, environmental science, biology, ecology, water, in 2010; research publications, papers, books; https://www.Academia.Edu/40226235/ 75. Citation of some papers and books on environmental science, ecology, biology, conservation; authored, co-authored …; https://www.Academia.Edu/2159398/ 76. Who read, current week. International users read these ecology publications. Topics: environmental sciences, water quality, aquatic toxicology, ecotoxicology: https://www.Academia.Edu/40764029/ 77. ???????????. ??????? ?????? (309 ???.) ??????????, ?????????? – ?????????? ?????? ??? (???????). ?????????? ?????, ????????, ????????, ????????? ???????? ????. ????. ????. ????, Selected: https://www.Academia.Edu/40196585/ 78. S.A. Ostroumov, g.M. Kolesov. The aquatic macrophyte ceratophyllum demersum immobilizes au nanoparticles after their addition to water. – Doklady biological sciences, 2010, vol. 431, pp. 124–127. 79. ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ????????? ???????? ? ?????????: ?????? ? ??????????. ?????? ????. ????. ?. 124. ????? 5. ?. 429. Https://www.Academia.Edu/42826584/ 80. I.V.Tropin, s.A.Ostroumov. Studies of interactions of a heavy metal with biogenic materials: developing database for biotechnology: https://www.Academia.Edu/42897069/ 81. 850 publications and files, with links, on academia.Edu, environmental sciences, biology, water, ecology, ecotoxicology, aquatic, water self-purification, in english, in russian: https://www.Academia.Edu/60305907/ 82. Bibliography, the list with abstracts, 470 pages, environmental science, biology, ecology, water, ecotoxicology, conservation, in english, in russian, publications of moscow university: https://www.Academia.Edu/42162924/ 83. Effect of amphiphilic chemicals on filter-feeding marine organisms; by s.A. Ostroumov [doklady biological sciences; 2001, v. 378, no. 1-6; pp. 248–250]: http://www.Scribd.Com/doc/49065593; http://www.Scribd.Com/doc/59417067/ 84. ?????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ???????? // ??????????? ????????? ???????? ???????????. ??????, ????? ???, 2016. – ?. 283–293. ????????? ?.?.; Paper on pages 283–293: https://www.Academia.Edu/54605812/ 85. 800 publications and files ( biology, environmental science, water, ecology, ecotoxicology), simple improved format, several links were added; papers free on academia.Edu; see the list of the titles with links here: https://www.Academia.Edu/51255901/ 86. Ecological concepts ecosystem, biogeocenosis, ecosystem boundaries: search for new definitions (in rus.) / ????????? ???????? ??????????, ???????????, ??????? ?????????: ????? ????? ???????????: Https://www.Academia.Edu/27074261/ 87. On the functional biospheric role of living and biogenic matter: the fourth biogeochemical principle. Russian journal of general chemistry, 2019, 89 (13): 2818–2820. Ostroumov s.A.: Https://www.Academia.Edu/44182667/ 88. Super big list of blog posts on environmental science, ecology, water quality: https://www.Academia.Edu/4560299/ 89. ????? ????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????????, ?????????? ? ??????? … Www.Scribd.Com/doc/74283857/ 90. ?????????? 2011–2013, ???????? ?????: ????????, ???????????????, ????????????? ????????, ?????????? ?????, ????????????? ?????, ???????????, ??????????? ?????, ?????? ???????: Https://www.Academia.Edu/4644798/ 91. Books, lomonosov moscow university (ostroumov s.A.), In english, russian, spanish, polish, bulgarian, czech, ecology, biology, conservation, environmental science, ecotoxicology of detergents, surfactants, links, ?????: Https://www.Academia.Edu/40201215/ 92. Buryak, ?Leksey ?. (????? ?. ?.) ????????: ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? / Innovative aspects of biogeochemistry and relevant issues of studying biosphere. Https://www.Academia.Edu/11741504/ 93. Quantification of phytotoxic effects of detergents on plant species. In: ecological studies, hazards, solutions (2021), vol. 27, pp. 11–20. Https://www.Academia.Edu/95158399/ 94. 2021 ??????????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ? ??????????????: ???????? ?? Vigna radiata. Cai x., ????????? ?.?.; Https://www.Academia.Edu/50775612/ 95. ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????. ?????? ???????: ???????? ?.?. ????????, ???????? ?.?. ???????, ???????? ?.?. ????????, ???????? ?.?. ?????????, ???????? ?.?. ???????; ???????? ??????? ?. Www.Scribd.Com/doc/74613712/ 96. ?????????? ????? ? ????????. ????????????? ??????????. ??????, 16 ???. ???????? ? ???????????. Https://www.Academia.Edu/27074306/ 97. ???????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ????-?????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????????????? ????????. Pages 192–195. Https://www.Academia.Edu/87125623/ 98. 639 papers. Environmental science, ecology, biology, water, ecotoxicology, on academia.Edu, and on scribd.Com, in english, in russian, publications of a fulbright awardee, lomonosov moscow university, links; https://www.Academia.Edu/71804458/ 99. S. Petersburg university (petrashen et al.) Cited moscow university ecology publication... Rehabilitation. ???????????????: ???????? (??????????????) ? ??????????? ?????? ?????????; Https://www.Academia.Edu/40463129/ 100. … The measurable concentrations of cu, zn, cd, and pb in the water of the experimental systems containing ceratophyllum demersum: the phytoremediation potential; https://www.Academia.Edu/1936802/ 101. Effects of aquatic pollution by a non-ionogenic surfactant on the marine diatom thalassiosira pseudonana; keywords: algae, phytoplankton, aquatic toxicology, ecotoxicology, water ecology, hydrobiology, https://www.Academia.Edu/1901831/ 102. Ostroumov s.A., Johnson m.E., Tyson j.F., Xing b. Immobilization of scandium and other chemical elements in systems with aquatic macrophyte. Russian journal of general chemistry. 85: 2929-2932; in english; with doi; https://www.Academia.Edu/43913769/ 103. International scientific conference sustainable development and green economy (serbia, belgrade, 19–21 april, 2022), program. Https://www.Academia.Edu/77657361/ 104. 268-page list of posts, links. Environmental science, ecology, biology, water science, water quality; a huge list of online materials and bibliography on scientific basis for protection of the environment. The materials are in english and other languages. Https://www.Academia.Edu/6303876/ 105. Electrogenesis by bacteriorhodopsin incorporated in a planar phospholipid membrane. Drachev la, kaulen ad, ostroumov sa, skulachev vp. [Biology, biomembranes, membrane potential, bacteria , halobacteria, thermophilic microorganisms, thermophiles, extremophiles]; https://www.Academia.Edu/40842049/ 106. Environmental science: 132-page list of references, titles, links to rg (researchgate) full texts; ecology, biology, water science, bibliography; https://www.Academia.Edu/29943314/ 107. 114 full text articles, researchgate, environment, ecology, ecotoxicology, water quality, biology, environmental science, water self-purification, bibliography; 40 pages. Https://www.Academia.Edu/11777063/ 108. Book of abstracts. Green economy in the function of solving global environmental problems, belgrade, republic of serbia, 20–22 april, 2023. Editor l. Jovanovic. Https://www.Academia.Edu/103190752/ 109. Titles, all with links, improved format. Attention online. 300 (+) most often downloaded articles on environmental science, ecology, biology, lots of publications of moscow university; full texts, files are available online free; on academia.Edu; https://www.Academia.Edu/49404407/ 110. Ecological studies, hazards, solutions, vol. 25, 2018; pages 1–200. Edited by s.A.Ostroumov et al.; The title of the volume: ecological and biological systems. Https://www.Academia.Edu/43289977/ 111. Scopus-indexed articles(89), simple format, some articles with abstracts. Environmental science, biology, ecotoxicology, bioassay, conservation biology, improving water quality, water self-purification, moscow state university; https://www.Academia.Edu/49339163/ 112. Use of dissolved organic matter microorganisms: formation water quality in pond of high trophic level. Fisheries. 2020,5:25. ?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????????????: ???????????? ???????? ???? ? ????????????? ?????: Https://www.Academia.Edu/44887672/ 113. , S.Petersburg university. Petrashen et al. ... Rehabilit.; Https://www.Academia.Edu/40463123/ 114. Citation in 2020 (and 2019) in u.S.A., U.K., Sweden, denmark, italy, russia, germany, japan, italy, france, canada, ireland, spain, portugal, finland, australia, brazil, china, poland, india: env sci.; Https://www.Academia.Edu/44748844/ 115. 700 publications. Environmental science, biology, ecology, water, ecotoxicology, biogeochemistry, moscow university available online free on academia.Edu; 37 p.; Https://www.Academia.Edu/44612339/ 116. 800 publications and files on biology, environmental science, water, ecology, ecotoxicology; free on academia.Edu; with links; 4.9.2021; https://www.Academia.Edu/51255915/ 117. ??????????????? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????, ???????? ????????? ? ????????. Xii ????????????? ???????????????? ?????. (Many authors). 2021. Https://www.Academia.Edu/62867730/ 118. Anthropogenic effects on the biota: towards a new system of principles and criteria for analysis of ecological hazards; ... [Environmental, sci., Ecology, biology, ecotoxicology, toxicology, innovation, man-made impact, protection, conservation, water] https://www.Academia.Edu/2922611/ 119. Biodiversity protection and quality of water: the role of feedbacks in ecosystems: [nature conservation, conservation biology, water quality, aquatic ecology] https://www.Academia.Edu/43772904/ 120. 300 last posts, environmental science, ecology, biology, results of a moscow university researcher ..., 2019, sept- dec; https://www.Academia.Edu/41650526/ 121. ???????? ??????-??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ???????. ? ?????: ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ?????????. ?. 321–324. Https://www.Academia.Edu/92489264/ 122. Title: accelerated decrease in surfactant concentration in the water of a microcosm in the presence of plants: innovations for phytotechnology. [Water quality, improvement, macrophytes, higher plants, phytoremediation, biotechnology, water treatment] https://www.Academia.Edu/43779198/ 123. ?.?. ??????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????????????? ??????? ???????? (???? ? ??????) ? ????????? ????????-??????????????????? ??????????: ?? ???? ? ?????????????? ???????? ???? // ?????? ????????? ?????? 2012, ? 1, ?. 103–108. Http://www.Scribd.Com/doc/86720429/ 124. List of 747 articles available online free on academia.Edu; environmental science, biology, ecology, ecotoxicology, toxicology, innovation, man-made impact, protection, conservation, water, citation, cited, citations; selected; 10.04.2021; 60 pages; https://www.Academia.Edu/46434313/ 125. 100 last citation of … (moscow state university), according to russian index of scientific citation. 06.02.2020. Ecology, environmental science, aquatic ecology, biology, water, https://www.Academia.Edu/41882538/ 126. ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??????-??????? ????????. ????????????? ?????, 2016, 25(1); 5–15; ????????? ?.?.; Https://www.Academia.Edu/51193285/ 127. Bioassay of surfactants based on the disruption of seedling attachment to the substrate and rhizoderm root hair formation. S.A.Ostroumov and v.N.Maksimov, biology bulletin, 1991, vol.18 (4): 383-386; the full text of the issue of the journal with this article: https://www.Academia.Edu/2924545/ 128. Papers (u.S., U.K. Et al) cited the article: some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders; https://www.Academia.Edu/48925236/ 129. Citations, attention, interest to the cited ecology publications of moscow university (ostroumov s.A.), Environmental science, water, biology, top recommended articles, papers, books, prior to 2019.08.15; 19 p. Https://www.Academia.Edu/40815413/ 130. Publications available online free on academia.Edu, authored by lomonosov moscow university; (environmental science, ecology, water, biology; exemplified by works of a faculty member, faculty of biology); the simple-format list is on 69 pages, 09.08.2021, https://www.Academia.Edu/50804959/ 131. Institutions (32) cited (2020) articles of msu (mgu), environmental science, water science, citations in italy, france, canada, spain, portugal, finland, australia, china: https://www.Academia.Edu/44463121/ 132. The aquatic macrophyte ceratophyllum demersum immobilizes au nanoparticles after their addition to water [aquatic higher plants, macrophytes, gold, nanomaterials, biosorption]; https://www.Academia.Edu/59120644/ 133. ????????? ?.?. ???????? ? ????????????????? ???? ? ????????? ???????????: ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? // ????????????? ????? 2017, 26(4): 175–182; https://www.Academia.Edu/43223672/ 134. Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders; https://www.Academia.Edu/1893508/ 135. Typology of matter in biosphere. In russian. ? ????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ? ????????. ?????? : Https://www.Academia.Edu/44001142/ 136. S.A. Ostroumov. Biocontrol of water quality: multifunctional role of biota in water self-purification.- Russian journal of general chemistry, 2010, vol. 80, no. 13, 2010, pp. 2754–2761. Http://www.Scribd.Com/doc/49131150 137. Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. – Hydrobiologia, 2005. 542(1): 275–286; ostroumov s.A. [Water quality, aquatic ecology, ecotoxicology, invertebrates, water filtration, self-purification]: https://www.Academia.Edu/41039799/ 138. 30-????? ????????????????? ? ??????-???????????? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ???? … (?????????? ???.??????????? ??. ?.?. ??????????, ??????, ?????????? ?????????). On anniversary of teaching activity of …, moscow university; https://www.Academia.Edu/2141693/ 139. Ecological studies, hazards, solutions, 2010, vol. 16; ostroumov s.A., Kotelevtsev s.V., Toderas i.K., Gorshkova o.M. (Eds.); Https://www.Academia.Edu/71575966/ 140. Ambiance (international scientific journal), 2015, vol.1, no.1; including publications on environmental science, environmental protection, biogeochemistry, ecology, phytotoxicity of detergents, conservation of living nature (in russian, in english): https://www.Academia.Edu/43322046/ 141. Finding of toxicity of herbal shampoo to plant seedlings: phytotest of mixture product that contains membranotropic chemicals as components. – Ecologica, vol. 28, no. 101 (2021), 6-10. Cai x., Ostroumov s. A.; Https://doi.Org/10.18485/ecologica.2021.28.101.2; https://www.Academia.Edu/46648108/ 142. 300 last posts, environmental science, ecology, biology, results of a moscow state university researcher, 2019, september – december; https://www.Academia.Edu/41422293/ 143. Relevant, interesting publications of moscow state university (environmental science, ecology, bioscience, biology, water), lists of publications (scribd, google scholar, pubmed, researchgate, scopus, springerlink, academia.Edu), in eng, rus; keywords (500): https://www.Academia.Edu/42808132/ 144. International users read these ecology, environmental science publications; who read these in canada, russia, greece, india, poland, serbia: new definition of ecosystem, water self-purification, surfactants, detergents, filter-feeders, aquatic, ecotoxicology: https://www.Academia.Edu/40764026/ 145. Citation. Book. Biological effects of surfactants. Environmental toxicology, detergents, surface active substances. Austria, germany, netherlands, belgium, spain, brazil, indonesia; https://www.Academia.Edu/2479823/ ; http://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2013/01/citation-of-book-biologicaleffects-of_25.Html 146. Ostroumov s.A. Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders // hydrobiologia. 2005. Vol. 542, no. 1. P. 275–286. Text: https://www.Academia.Edu/2922718/ ; www.Scribd.Com/doc/44105992/ 147. The role of green economy transition in green growth and environmental protection. L. Jovanovic, v.V. Ermakov, s.A. Ostroumov (eds.); Https://www.Academia.Edu/101806226/ 148. ?????? ????? ???????: ???????? ? ???????????. Book. Https://www.Academia.Edu/72524767/ 149. On the biotic self-purification of aquatic ecosystems: elements of the theory. Https://www.Academia.Edu/48855745/ 150. Scopus bibliography (88), ecology, environmental science, water quality, water self-purification, ecotoxicology, biology, biosphere, aquatic ecosystems, bioassay of toxicity of detergents and surfactants, biomembranes, moscow university (sergei a. Ostroumov); https://www.Academia.Edu/43507898/ dr green dr green published • jun 29 papers with links useful aquatic toxicology detergents ecology ecotoxicology environmental science top water quality water self-purification ???????? ? 0 ? 7 ? O over 300 institutions cited these articles. Dr green dr green published • jun 29 ? 0 ? 4 ? S sum-up of info on recent citations of useful, innovative, trend-setting articles on environmental science, water, aquatic ecotoxicology, water self-purification, especially in 2024, including citations made by scientists in the u.S., Germany, belgium, israel, italy, china, japan, turkey, et al.; Updated 22.06.2024; https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/06/sum-of-info-on-recent-citations-of.Html __ china, northeast normal university, in 2024, cited the research ecotoxicology paper titled: phytotoxicity of a surfactant-containing product towards macrophytes. Russ. J. Gen. Chem., 83 (13) (2013), pp. 2614-2617. Full text free: https://www.Academia.Edu/27074231/ ; [aquatic toxicology, detergent, water higher plant] . Https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/04/china-northeast-normal-university-cited.Html ; cited in: study on the effect and regularity of plating parts cleaning wastewater by enhanced aerobic process with high-density bacterial flora; y zhang, x sun, f wang, t su, s yang, s ai, d bian, h huo. ** Sweden. Swedish university - linköping university - cited this water self-purification paper of russian university, namely: biomachinery for maintaining water quality and natural water self-purification in marine estuarine systems: elements of qualitative theory. Full text free: https://www.Academia.Edu/44091281/ ; more info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/04/these-universities-and-institutions.Html ** france. Université paul sabatier - toulouse iii made the citation: they cited this water self-purification paper, namely: biomachinery for maintaining water quality and natural water self-purification in marine estuarine systems: elements of qualitative theory. Full text free: https://www.Academia.Edu/44091281/ ; more info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/04/these-universities-and-institutions.Html ** in australia, this university made the citation: southern cross university: they cited this water self-purification paper, namely: biomachinery for maintaining water quality and natural water self-purification in marine estuarine systems: elements of qualitative theory. Full text free: https://www.Academia.Edu/44091281/ ; more info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/04/these-universities-and-institutions.Html; ** mexico. In mexico, it was cited in universidad de guadalajara (the university of guadalajara), in the thesis, in spanish, titled: spatial analysis of surface water contamination in three bays of the central mexican pacific during the rainy season of 2020. Eduardo jael carranza pérez. AutlÁn de navarro, jalisco; septiembre 2022; como requisito parcial para obtener el grado de: maestro en ciencias en ecologÍa y manejo de recursos costeros y marinos; they cited this water self-purification paper, namely: biomachinery for maintaining water quality and natural water self-purification in marine estuarine systems: elements of qualitative theory. Full text free: https://www.Academia.Edu/44091281/ ; more info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/04/these-universities-and-institutions.Html; ** unesco-ihe institute for water education, in the netherlands (delft), cited in dissertation (thesis, for the master of science degree): determination of the contribution of light attenuating substances in lakes and comparison of different lakes with respect to optical properties. Master of science thesis by sirak robele gari, april 2005; they cited this water self-purification paper, namely: biomachinery for maintaining water quality and natural water self-purification in marine estuarine systems: elements of qualitative theory. Full text free: https://www.Academia.Edu/44091281/ ; more info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/04/these-universities-and-institutions.Html; ** poland. University of agriculture in krakow; jagiellonian university, (founded in 1364), cited: biomachinery for maintaining water quality and natural water self-purification in marine and estuarine systems...; ** Italy cited the paper of the top national university of rf (moscow state univ.), Environmental science, water, italian national research council, water research institute irsa, università degli studi di milano-bicocca, they cited: biocontrol of water quality: multifunctional role of biota in water self-purification; https://www.Academia.Edu/1892485/ ; https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2018/08/2018-citat.Html ** india, 2024, ddu gorakhpur university cited this article of msu (moscow state university): on the multifunctional role of the biota in the self-purification of aquatic ecosystems. Full-text of the cited paper, free: https://www.Academia.Edu/1893226/ ; the citation was made in this publication: study of ecology of mega-lentic ecosystem in india and abroad: a review. Avinash kumar, anil k dwivedi; (affiliation: ddu gorakhpur university, india); international journal of multidisciplinary research in science, engineering and technology (ijmrset), vol. 7, issue 4, 2024; p. 5347 - 5363. Impact factor: 7.5. More info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/04/new-citation-of-this-paper-of-msu.Html ** italy. Bologna university. In 2024, the world oldest university cited the article titled: inhibition of mussel suspension feeding by surfactants of three classes. Https://www.Academia.Edu/1892796/ ; the citation was made in paper: complexity-functioning relationships differ across different environmental conditions. More info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/04/world-oldest-university-cited-paper.Html ; inhibition of mussel suspension feeding by surfactants of three classes. Australia, macquarie university cited - in 2024 - the ecotoxicology paper titled: inhibition of mussel suspension feeding by surfactants of three classes. Keywords: aquatic toxicology, marine bivalves, mollusca, mytilus, filter-feeders, toxicity of surfactants, full text free: https://www.Academia.Edu/1892796/ ; more info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/04/macquarie-university-cited.Html israel oceanographic and limnological research national institute of oceanography, researchers of this institute cited - favorably - this aquatic ecology paper on suspension feeders: some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. Https://www.Academia.Edu/41039799/; more info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/04/cited-2024-israel-oceanographic-and.Html ; italy, university of padova cited in 2024 - favorably - this aquatic ecology paper on suspension feeders, titled: some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. Https://www.Academia.Edu/41039799/; more info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/04/these-universities-cited-univ-new-south.Html ; nigeria, federal university of lafia, cited in 2024, favorably: water quality and conditioning in natural ecosystems: biomachinery theory of self-purification of water. Https://www.Academia.Edu/44021682/ ; more info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/04/federal-university-of-lafia-cited-in.Html ; malaysia. University of malaya, kuala lumpur, in 2024, cited favorably: water quality and conditioning in natural ecosystems: biomachinery theory of self-purification of water. Full text free: https://www.Academia.Edu/44021682/ ; more info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/04/university-of-malaya-kuala-lumpur-in.Html ; usa, university of idaho, moscow (in u.S.), Cited in 2024, favorably: water quality and conditioning in natural ecosystems: biomachinery theory of self-purification of water. Full text free: https://www.Academia.Edu/44021682/ ; more info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/04/usa-university-of-idaho-moscow-cited-in.Html ; italy. Natl biodivers future ctr, national biodiversity future center, nbfc, cited favorably, in 2024, the research ecotoxicology paper of msu (mgu) and plymouth marine lab: inhibition of mussel suspension feeding by surfactants of three classes. Https://www.Academia.Edu/1892796/ ; more info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/05/italy-natl-biodivers-future-ctr.Html ; russia, researchers of saint petersburg state university, in 2024, cited (favorably, in a very high if journal) this paper. The influential citation was made of this aquatic ecology paper on suspension feeders, titled: some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. Https://www.Academia.Edu/41039799/; [aquatic ecology, paper, suspension feeders, filter feeders, role in ecosystems]; doi: 10.1007/s10750-004-1875-1; more info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/05/russia-saint-petersburg.Html ; slovenia, university of ljubljana, the capital of slovenia, in 2024, cited (favorably, in a very high if journal) this paper. The influential citation was made of this aquatic ecology paper on suspension feeders, titled: some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. Https://www.Academia.Edu/41039799/; [aquatic ecology, paper, suspension feeders, filter feeders, role in ecosystems]; more info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/05/slovenia-university-of-ljubljana-in.Html ; italy, stazione zoologica anton dohrn, naples, in 2024, cited (favorably, in a very high if journal) this aquatic ecology paper on suspension feeders, titled: some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. Https://www.Academia.Edu/41039799/; [aquatic ecology, paper, suspension feeders, filter feeders, role in ecosystems]; in the last year, this article got influential citation of scientists of 19 universities and institutions of europe and asia. More info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/05/in-2024-cited.Html ; italy, university of messina, sicily, in 2024, cited (favorably, in a very high if journal) this aquatic ecology paper on suspension feeders, titled: some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. Https://www.Academia.Edu/41039799/; [aquatic ecology, paper, suspension feeders, filter feeders, role in ecosystems]; in the last year, this article got influential citation of scientists of 19 universities and institutions of europe and asia. More info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/05/italy-university-of-messina.Html ; israel, university of haifa, in 2024, cited (favorably, in a very high rank journal biological reviews, impact factor 14.35 for 2021) this aquatic ecology paper on suspension feeders, titled: some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. Https://www.Academia.Edu/41039799/; [aquatic ecology, paper, suspension feeders, filter feeders, role in ecosystems]; in the last year, this article got influential citation of scientists of 19 universities and institutions. More info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/05/israel-university-of-haifa-in-2024-cited.Html ; italy, university of insubria, in 2024, cited (favorably, in a very high rank journal biological reviews, impact factor 14.35 for 2021) this aquatic ecology paper on suspension feeders, titled: some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. Https://www.Academia.Edu/41039799/; [aquatic ecology, paper, suspension feeders, filter feeders, role in ecosystems]; in the last year, this article got influential citation of scientists of 19 universities and institutions of europe and asia. More info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/05/university-of-insubria-in-2024-cited.Html ; turkey, middle east technical university, in 2024, cited (favorably, in a very high rank journal biological reviews, impact factor 14.35 for 2021) this aquatic ecology paper on suspension feeders, titled: some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. Https://www.Academia.Edu/41039799/; [aquatic ecology, paper, suspension feeders, filter feeders, role in ecosystems]; in the last year, this article got influential citation of scientists of 19 universities and institutions of europe and asia. More info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/05/turkey-middle-east-technical-university.Html ; turkey, metu institute of marine sciences in 2024, cited (favorably, in a very high rank journal biological reviews, impact factor 14.35 for 2021) this aquatic ecology paper on suspension feeders, titled: some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. Https://www.Academia.Edu/41039799/; [aquatic ecology, paper, suspension feeders, filter feeders, role in ecosystems]; in the last year, this article got influential citation of scientists of 24 universities and institutions of europe and asia. Metu is middle east technical university. More info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/05/turkey-middle-east-technical-university.Html ; france, cnrs, and other french top institutions in 2024 cited (favorably, in a very high if journal) this paper. The influential citation was made of this aquatic ecology paper on suspension feeders, titled: some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. Https://www.Academia.Edu/41039799/; [aquatic ecology, paper, suspension feeders, filter feeders, role in ecosystems]; more info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/05/france-cnrs.Html ; france, inserm (linstitut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale), cnrs, sorbonne université (no.1 in france), and other french top institutions in 2024 cited (favorably, in a very high if journal) this paper. The influential citation was made of this aquatic ecology paper on suspension feeders, titled: some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. Https://www.Academia.Edu/41039799/; [aquatic ecology, paper, suspension feeders, filter feeders, role in ecosystems]; more info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/05/france-inserm.Html ; china, 2024 citation of: studying effects of some surfactants and detergents on filter-feeding bivalves. Https://www.Academia.Edu/2922688/; more info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/05/2024-citation-of-studying-effects-of.Html ; china. Northwest a&f univ, south china normal univ, 2024, the citation (favorable) of this paper was made: studying effects of some surfactants and detergents on filter-feeding bivalves. Https://www.Academia.Edu/2922688/; the citation was made in the paper titled: self-assembly of cinnamic acid-modified chitosan surfactants: synthesis, characterization, and applications in emulsification. More info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/05/the-citation-favorable-of-this-paper.Html ; canada, university of montreal, cited: recently in 2024, this citation was made: canadian scientists cited the article entitled: some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. Total citation of this highly cited article according to scholargoogle: 116. More info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/05/canada-university-of-montreal-cited-in.Html ; south korea, in 2024, two researchers in south korea - dongguk university - made a new citation of the paper: studying effects of some surfactants and detergents on filter-feeding bivalves. Https://www.Academia.Edu/2922688/ ; the cited paper: studying effects of some surfactants and detergents on filter-feeding bivalves. Hydrobiologia, 500, 341–344 (2003). Https://doi.Org/10.1023/a:1024604904065 ; the citation was made by two scientists from dongguk university, the south-korean paper (qin, lee , 2024) is titled: polymeric surfactants with high acid values for emulsion type pressure-sensitive adhesives. More info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/05/south-korea-cited-in-2024-south-korea.Html ; belarus, in 2024, scientific and practical center of the national academy of sciences of belarus for bioresources, minsk; and central research institute for integrated use of water resources, minsk scientists cited: the hazard of a two-level synergism at synecological summation of anthropogenic impacts. Https://www.Academia.Edu/2449972/ ; the citation was made in the paper: relationship between macrozoobenthos structure and hydrochemical characteristics in rivers ... More info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/05/belarus-2024-water-quality-springer.Html ; philippines, davao oriental state university, in 2024 cited (favorably) the research article entitled: new definitions of the concepts and terms ecosystem and biogeocenosis ; https://www.Academia.Edu/2922466/; the citation was made in the paper by young scientist: del socorro, l. F. N. (2024). Biotic and abiotic synergies in a log ecosystem. Davao research journal (drj), 15(1), 96-103. More info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/06/young-scientists-cited-it-new.Html ; u.K., University of plymouth (univ plymouth, sch biol & marine sci, plymouth pl4 8aa, england) in 2024 cited article: inhibition of mussel suspension feeding by surfactants of three classes. Https://www.Academia.Edu/1892796/ ; the citation was made in paper: complexity-functioning relationships differ across different environmental conditions. More info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/04/world-oldest-university-cited-paper.Html ; ireland, university college dublin (univ coll dublin), in 2024 cited article: inhibition of mussel suspension feeding by surfactants of three classes. Https://www.Academia.Edu/1892796/ ; the citation was made in paper: complexity-functioning relationships differ across different environmental conditions. More info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/04/world-oldest-university-cited-paper.Html ; brazil, instituto do estudos do mar almirante paulo moreira ieapm, (admiral paulo moreira marine studies institute) (arraial do cabo), in 2024 cited article: inhibition of mussel suspension feeding by surfactants of three classes. Https://www.Academia.Edu/1892796/ ; the citation was made in paper: complexity-functioning relationships differ across different environmental conditions. More info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/04/world-oldest-university-cited-paper.Html ; australia, university melbourne, (national center coasts & climate, school bioscience, melbourne, vic 3010) in 2024 cited article: inhibition of mussel suspension feeding by surfactants of three classes. Https://www.Academia.Edu/1892796/ ; the citation was made in paper: complexity-functioning relationships differ across different environmental conditions. More info: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/04/world-oldest-university-cited-paper.Html ; dr green dr green published • jun 29 ? 0 ? 27 ? A all time impact. Dr green dr green published • jun 29 all time impact most-viewed ? 0 ? 4 ? 2024, top experts of this huge company - jan de nul group, [2022, jan de nul had 7178 employees and a yearly turnover of 2.5 billion euro ] - cited this ecology paper of msu, titled: some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders, hydrobiologia, 542 (2005) 275–286, https://doi.Org/10.1007/s10750-004-1875-1. Full text online free: https://www.Academia.Edu/114342530/ ; https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/06/2024-top-experts-of-this-huge.Html ; __ jan de nul has a fleet of 75 vessels, including 14 cutter suction dredgers, 28 trailing suction hopper dredgers, 20 split barges, 6 backhoe dredgers, 1 oil recovery vessel, 5 rock installation vessels and one cable installation vessel under construction. This includes the cristobal colon, launched in 2008, and the worlds largest dredger with a capacity of 46,000 m³. It can dredge to a water depth of 155m. Joined by her near-sister ship leiv eiriksson in 2010, jan de nul has one of the worlds largest, if not the largest, fleets of hopper dredgers __ the citation was made in the paper: nature-based solutions, 6 (2024) 100142, inducing mussel beds, based on an aquaculture long-line system, as nature-based solutions: effects on seabed dynamics and benthic communities. Mazharul islam a,f,*, alexia semeraro a, kobus langedock b, ine moulaert b, vicky stratigaki d,e, tomas sterckx c, gert van hoey a a flanders research institute for agriculture, fisheries and food (ilvo), jacobsenstraat 1, 8400 ostend, belgium; b flanders marine institute (vliz), jacobsenstraat 1, 8400, ostend, belgium; c dredging, environmental & marine engineering nv (deme), haven 1025, scheldedijk 30, 2070 zwijndrecht, belgium; d jan de nul group, tragel 60, hofstade, 9308 aalst, belgium; e ghent university, technologiepark 60, zwijnaarde, 9000 ghent, belgium f imbrsea, marine biology research group, ghent university, krijgslaan 281/s8, 9000 ghent, belgium; a r t i c l e i n f o, a b s t r a c t : keywords: nature-based solutions, ecosystem engineer, mytilus edulis, monitoring, mussel bed, hydrodynamic, sediment, combating climate change, macro benthic community nature-based solutions (nbs) offer a promising path to enhance climate-resilient shorelines. For instance, the creation of mussel beds in subtidal sandy shore systems provides a versatile strategy for coastal management, reinforcing coastal defense and fostering biodiversity, ultimately strengthening the resilience and well-being of coastal communities. This study analysed the changes in seabed dynamics and surrounding benthic communities as a result of the formation of mussel beds (mytilus edulis) using an aquaculture longline system. Therefore, a comprehensive monitoring approach at two sites characterized by distinct hydrodynamic conditions was applied over a three-year period. To assess the effects, a before/after control/impact design (baci) was employed. Seabed dynamics were evaluated by observing mussel bed persistence, erosion/deposition, and sediment composition. The influence on the benthic community included assessments of community structure and biodiversity. Finally, the impact of mussels, hydrodynamic conditions, and their interactions on seabed dynamics and benthic communities was examined using linear mixed models (lmms). Factors such as mussel presence, lanice conchilega abundance, shell cover, and sediment composition played a role in shaping the distinct characteristics observed between two different sites: a site that lies at a location that is more sheltered from hydrodynamic conditions, and a second site that is exposed to higher current and wave conditions. The sheltered site exhibited higher species density, richness, biomass, and diversity compared to the exposed site. In relation to the mussel bed development, mussel patches were found at both sites (with higher occurrence at the sheltered site) in the 2nd and 3rd years (mainly in summer towards early winter). The influence of mussels on sediment deposition was noticeable at the sheltered site, albeit lacking statistical significance, suggesting their potential role in erosion/deposition mechanisms. Also, a higher proportion of very fine sand was observed in the mussel bed compared to the bare sand. However, due to the absence of higher-density permanent mussel beds and irregular sedimentation/erosion patterns throughout the study period, no significant effect of the mussel beds on the community structure or diversity was found. In order to achieve a sustained and dense mussel bed and maximize the potential impact of mussels in combating climate change (e.G., Shore protection and biodiversity enrichment), additional measures to increase coastal resilience against harsh hydrodynamic conditions may be necessary. Dr green dr green published • jun 29 2.5 billion euro activity cited filter-feeders fleet of 75 vessels one of the worlds largest the worlds largest water filtering ? 0 ? 4 ? 2024, this belgian institute - flanders marine institute (vliz), - cited this ecology paper of msu, titled: some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders, hydrobiologia, 542 (2005) 275–286, https://doi.Org/10.1007/s10750-004-1875-1. Full text online free: https://www.Academia.Edu/114342530/ ; https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/06/they-cited-in-2024-in-belgium.Html the citation was made in the paper: nature-based solutions, 6 (2024) 100142, inducing mussel beds, based on an aquaculture long-line system, as nature-based solutions: effects on seabed dynamics and benthic communities. Mazharul islam a,f,*, alexia semeraro a, kobus langedock b, ine moulaert b, vicky stratigaki d,e, tomas sterckx c, gert van hoey a a flanders research institute for agriculture, fisheries and food (ilvo), jacobsenstraat 1, 8400 ostend, belgium; b flanders marine institute (vliz), jacobsenstraat 1, 8400, ostend, belgium; c dredging, environmental & marine engineering nv (deme), haven 1025, scheldedijk 30, 2070 zwijndrecht, belgium; d jan de nul group, tragel 60, hofstade, 9308 aalst, belgium; e ghent university, technologiepark 60, zwijnaarde, 9000 ghent, belgium f imbrsea, marine biology research group, ghent university, krijgslaan 281/s8, 9000 ghent, belgium; a r t i c l e i n f o, a b s t r a c t : keywords: nature-based solutions, ecosystem engineer, mytilus edulis, monitoring, mussel bed, hydrodynamic, sediment, combating climate change, macro benthic community nature-based solutions (nbs) offer a promising path to enhance climate-resilient shorelines. For instance, the creation of mussel beds in subtidal sandy shore systems provides a versatile strategy for coastal management, reinforcing coastal defense and fostering biodiversity, ultimately strengthening the resilience and well-being of coastal communities. This study analysed the changes in seabed dynamics and surrounding benthic communities as a result of the formation of mussel beds (mytilus edulis) using an aquaculture longline system. Therefore, a comprehensive monitoring approach at two sites characterized by distinct hydrodynamic conditions was applied over a three-year period. To assess the effects, a before/after control/impact design (baci) was employed. Seabed dynamics were evaluated by observing mussel bed persistence, erosion/deposition, and sediment composition. The influence on the benthic community included assessments of community structure and biodiversity. Finally, the impact of mussels, hydrodynamic conditions, and their interactions on seabed dynamics and benthic communities was examined using linear mixed models (lmms). Factors such as mussel presence, lanice conchilega abundance, shell cover, and sediment composition played a role in shaping the distinct characteristics observed between two different sites: a site that lies at a location that is more sheltered from hydrodynamic conditions, and a second site that is exposed to higher current and wave conditions. The sheltered site exhibited higher species density, richness, biomass, and diversity compared to the exposed site. In relation to the mussel bed development, mussel patches were found at both sites (with higher occurrence at the sheltered site) in the 2nd and 3rd years (mainly in summer towards early winter). The influence of mussels on sediment deposition was noticeable at the sheltered site, albeit lacking statistical significance, suggesting their potential role in erosion/deposition mechanisms. Also, a higher proportion of very fine sand was observed in the mussel bed compared to the bare sand. However, due to the absence of higher-density permanent mussel beds and irregular sedimentation/erosion patterns throughout the study period, no significant effect of the mussel beds on the community structure or diversity was found. In order to achieve a sustained and dense mussel bed and maximize the potential impact of mussels in combating climate change (e.G., Shore protection and biodiversity enrichment), additional measures to increase coastal resilience against harsh hydrodynamic conditions may be necessary. __ from wikipedia, the free encyclopedia flanders marine institute vliz logo formation 1999; 25 years ago type non-profit organization purpose support marine research location ostend, belgium coordinates 51.233809°n 2.929128°e website www.Vliz.Be the flanders marine institute (dutch: vlaams instituut voor de zee, vliz)[1] provides a focal point for marine scientific research in flanders, northern belgium. The flemish government established the institute in 1999 together with the province of west flanders and the fund for scientific research. Vliz promotes the accumulation of knowledge and excellence in research with regard to the ocean, seas, coasts and tidal estuaries. The central focus is on the provision of services to the research community, educators, the general public, policymakers and the industry. Vliz promotes and supports flemish marine research. Within this scope, vliz focuses on open, useful networking and the promotion of an integrated and cross-disciplinary approach. Vliz serves as a national and international point of contact in the field of marine research. In this respect, it supports the image of flemish marine research in the four corners of the globe and can hold mandates to represent this research landscape. The institute also supports and accommodates international organisations on behalf of the flemish government: the ioc project office for iode,[2] the european marine board secretariat[3] and the european marine observation and data network (emodnet) secretariat[4] in ostend, and the joint programming initiative on healthy and productive seas and oceans (jpi oceans) secretariat[5] in brussels. Vliz also manages rv simon stevin[6] a marine research vessel. Making the research vessel simon stevin, marine robots as well as other research equipment and infrastructure available is one of the services provided to marine scientists in flanders. Within a european context, vliz offers technical and operational expertise for the use of this infrastructure. It stimulates and initiates research based on these innovative technologies. Dr green dr green published • jun 29 2024 belgian institute flanders marine institute vliz activity cited filter-feeders water filtering ? 0 ? 4 ? T they cited in 2024, in belgium. 2024, this belgian institute - flanders research institute for agriculture, fisheries and food (ilvo), - cited this ecology paper of msu, titled: some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders, hydrobiologia, 542 (2005) 275–286, https://doi.Org/10.1007/s10750-004-1875-1. Full text online free: https://www.Academia.Edu/114342530/ ; https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/06/they-cited-in-2024-in-belgium.Html the citation was made in the paper: nature-based solutions, 6 (2024) 100142, inducing mussel beds, based on an aquaculture long-line system, as nature-based solutions: effects on seabed dynamics and benthic communities. Mazharul islam a,f,*, alexia semeraro a, kobus langedock b, ine moulaert b, vicky stratigaki d,e, tomas sterckx c, gert van hoey a a flanders research institute for agriculture, fisheries and food (ilvo), jacobsenstraat 1, 8400 ostend, belgium; b flanders marine institute (vliz), jacobsenstraat 1, 8400, ostend, belgium; c dredging, environmental & marine engineering nv (deme), haven 1025, scheldedijk 30, 2070 zwijndrecht, belgium; d jan de nul group, tragel 60, hofstade, 9308 aalst, belgium; e ghent university, technologiepark 60, zwijnaarde, 9000 ghent, belgium f imbrsea, marine biology research group, ghent university, krijgslaan 281/s8, 9000 ghent, belgium; a r t i c l e i n f o, a b s t r a c t : keywords: nature-based solutions, ecosystem engineer, mytilus edulis, monitoring, mussel bed, hydrodynamic, sediment, combating climate change, dr green dr green published • jun 29 2024 fisheries and food flanders research institute for agriculture ilvo activity cited filter-feeders in belgium water filtering ? 0 ? 32 ? 2 2 highly recommended research papers, environmental science, available online free, highly cited: decreasing measurable concentrations of cu, zn, cd, pb in water of experimental systems containing ceratophyllum demersum: phytoremediation...Https://www.Academia.Edu/43123949 … doklady biological sciences; https://www.Academia.Edu/1936807/ ; https://www … ; 2009; biomachinery for maintaining water quality and natural water self-purification in marine estuarine systems: elements of qualitative theory. Https://www.Academia.Edu/44091281/ ; int. Journal of oceans oceanography; https://www.Academia.Edu/44091281/ ; 1 … ; 2006; dr green dr green published • jun 29 ? 0 ? 14 ? 205 ? Last month, 10 champs, top-10 most-viewed posts, environmental science, top cited, most read, highly cited, including u.K., Australia, france, india, italy (world-oldest university), __ posts: u.K., Britain cited (favorably) research results of msu (moscow state university), in 2020, environmental research, aquatic ecosystem function, water self-purification, results of award-winning researcher; ___ in 2020, in u.K., A new citation of moscow state university research in environmental science was made; the cited article: some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders; full text free: https://www.Academia.Edu/41039799/ ; https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2020/12/britain-cited.Html ; ___ the citation was made in the article: design and implementation of two surveys targeted at describing fouling communities and identifying non-native species within active ports; s holmes, r callaway - journal of the marine biological association of the …; ports have long been considered high-risk areas for the introduction of non-native species (nns) and should therefore be a focus of nns monitoring. The industrial nature of active ports can, however, provide various problems when attempting to carry out monitoring programmes. Current methodologies designed to identify nns and to describe fouling communities have not been developed specifically for use in active ports and can encounter a number of issues when used in these …; ___ •cites: some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders; ___ the full reference of the cited paper: ostroumov, sa (2005) some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. Hydrobiologia 542, 275–286. Full text free: https://www.Academia.Edu/41039799/ ; ___ info on this article: https://link.Springer.Com/article/10.1007/s10750-004-1875-1 ; samuel holmes- affiliation: college of science, biosciences, swansea university, singleton park, swansea sa2 8pp, wales, uk; ___ ruth callaway- affiliation: college of science, biosciences, swansea university, singleton park, swansea sa2 8pp, wales, uk; corresponding e-mail address: sam.J.Holmes1@gmail.Com; the british paper that cited ostroumov, 2005 (moscow university): holmes, s., & Callaway, r. (2020). Design and implementation of two surveys targeted at describing fouling communities and identifying non-native species within active ports. Journal of the marine biological association of the united kingdom, 1-14. Doi:10.1017/s0025315420001150; tags: citation analysis, u.K., Britain, cited favorably,swansea university,united kingdom, msu, 125 ? Australia cited, mentioned , in 2024: 4 australian universities, posted by dr green 204 ? Most-viewed, on last day of march, and in the morning of the first day of april, environmental science research results, publications of msu, moscow state university. User activity, they read these papers in russia, netherlands, the united states, (california, virginia), serbia, georgia, kazakhstan, thailand, belarus, poland, iraq, uganda, tajikistan, et al.; Date role university city & state country content source pages read 12:55 apr 1 the russian federation ?????????? ????????????? ? ?????????????????? ?????????.... Google.Ru 12:38 apr 1 scientist amsterdam, the netherlands ?????????????? ? ??????? “??????–???????????? ????????????... 12:37 apr 1 scientist amsterdam the netherlands ?????????????? ? ??????? “??????–???????????? ????????????... 11:15 apr 1 russian academy of sciences the russian federation ??????? ??????? ? ???????????? ?... Rambler.Ru 10:03 apr 1 dushanbe tajikistan ?????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ?????... Google.Com 9:53 apr 1 barnaul the russian federation ???????? ????????????? ? ??????? ?????????????:... Google.Ru 5 9:52 apr 1 barnaul the russian federation ???????? ????????????? ? ??????? ?????????????:... Google.Ru 9:44 apr 1 the russian federation quantification of phytotoxic effects of... Google.Ru 8:53 apr 1 los angeles, california the united states, toxicology of nanomaterials and environment.... Google.Com 0:58 apr 1 lagos nigeria 15-page list of files on... Google.Com 22:40 mar 31 krasnodar the russian federation [????????? ???????] ????????????? ???????? ????????... Google.Ru 5 22:33 mar 31 graduate student university of maryland baltimore county ashburn, virginia the united states 24 pages, summary of results... 21:34 mar 31 krasnodar the russian federation [????????? ???????] ????????????? ???????? ????????... Google.Ru 5 20:59 mar 31 russian state university for the humanities moscow the russian federation december 5, 2023. ???? ????????... Mail.Ru 19:29 mar 31 university of baghdad baghdad iraq 112 page list of achievements,... 7 19:28 mar 31 university of baghdad baghdad iraq 112 page list of achievements,... Android.Gm 17:07 mar 31 tbilisi; georgia; new example of use of..;. Google.Ru ; 14:59 mar 31; novosibirsk the russian federation; ???????? ?????? ?.?.??????????? ? ????????;... Posted by dr green 196 ? 3 champs, last 24 hours, top-5 most-viewed posts: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/05/3-champs.Html ; __ posts: india: universities and institutions which cited the environmental science papers and books out out of this list of relevant bibliography, the list of bibliography is here: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/04/953-useful-links-simple-format-list_23.Html ; examples of other more that 300 universities and institutions that cited these papers are here: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/05/300-institutions-cited.Html ; __ indian institutions which made these citations are below (some selected examples only): 2 periyar university,salem, india: __ 1 indian institute of technology kanpur __ karunya institute of technology & sciences,= karunya univ. ; __ vellore institute of technology; __ amrita center for nanosciences csir-indian institute of chemical technology, hyderabad and many others, to be continued; last month, 10 champs, top-10 most-viewed posts, environmental sci posted by dr green 191 ? China, 2024, in green development paper, the new citation was made of the water self-purification article: ostroumov, s. A. (2005). On the multifunctional role of the biota in the self-purification of aquatic ecosystems. Russian journal of ecology, 36(6), 414–420. Https://doi.Org/10.1007/s11184-005-0095-x ; article google scholar __ the citation was made in the paper: li, z., Li, y., Song, w. Et al. The safeguard mode of green development in china. Environ dev sustain (2024). Https://doi.Org/10.1007/s10668-024-05110-6 download citation received 22 september 2022 accepted 03 june 2024 published 11 june 2024 doi https://doi.Org/10.1007/s10668-024-05110-6; -_ authors and affiliations: school of management, xi’an university of architecture and technology, 13# yanta road, xi’an, 710055, shaanxi, china; zhengda li, yibing li, wei song, mingfang dong, cuili sun & xiaomeng qin; nanjing audit university joint research institute, nanjing, china; zhihui yang; institute of eurasia education and innovation, eurasia university, xi’an, china; xiaobing hu; posted by dr green 184 ? Citation, u.N., Fao cited, in short: positive role of biodiversity in water ecosystems was revisited, proved, analyzed in a new ecological theory of water purification, namely, theory of water self-purification. This theory was formulated by a lomonosov moscow state university scientist in a series of publications, three of them were recently cited by fao experts: in 2019, a book published by fao, united nations, cited these three scientific papers of moscow state university. Https://www.Researchgate.Net/publication/332523316 ; https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2019/04/fao-shrt.Html ; a new aspect of positive role of biodiversity in water ecosystems was revisited in a new ecological theory of water purification, namely, theory of water self-purification. This theory was formulated by a lomonosov moscow university scientist in a series of publications, three of them were recently cited by fao experts: in 2019 a book published by fao, united nations, cited these three scientific papers of moscow state university. Https://www.Researchgate.Net/publication/332523316 ; https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2019/04/fao-shrt.Html see also: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2019/04/cit15.Html fao. 2019. The state of the world’s biodiversity for food and agriculture, j. Bélanger & d. Pilling (eds.). Fao commission on genetic resources for food and agriculture assessments. Rome. 572 pp. (Http://www.Fao.Org/3/ca3129en/ca3129en.Pdf) fao cited these 3 articles of lomonosov moscow state university, namely: 1) polyfunctional role of biodiversity in processes leading to water purification: current conceptualizations and concluding remarks. Hydrobiologia, 469: 203–204; https://www.Academia.Edu/1900592/; https://www.Researchgate.Net/publication/200582742 ; ** 2) on the multifunctional role of the biota on the self-purification of aquatic ecosystems. Russian journal of ecology, 36(6): 414–420; https://www.Academia.Edu/1893226/; https://www.Researchgate.Net/publication/227317445 ; https://www.Researchgate.Net/publication/269092595 ; ** 3) biocontrol of water quality: multifunctional role of biota in water self-purification. Russian journal of general chemistry, 80(13): 2754–2761. Https://www.Academia.Edu/1892485/ ; https://www.Researchgate.Net/publication/227303635 ; these 3 articles were authored by sergei a. Ostroumov, lomonosov moscow university; fao (the food and agriculture organization of the united nations) is a specialized agency of the united nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. Posted by dr green 179 ? C citation of papers of msu, 2024. ??????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ???? (2024) ??????? ?????????? ?????. ???????. ??????????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ?????: ??????, ??????, ??????, ?????, ????????, ?????????, ??????????????, ??????, ????????, ?????, ???????? ? ??., ? ??? ????? ????????? (????????? ????????? ????????): A centre of marine science and innovation, evolution and ecology research centre, school of biological, earth and environmental sciences, university of new south wales, sydney, australia; b school of biological and marine sciences, university of plymouth, plymouth, pl4 8aa, united kingdom; c chioggia hydrobiological station “umberto dancona”, department of biology, university of padova, uo conisma, chioggia, italy; d nbfc, national biodiversity future center, palermo, 90133, italy; e school of natural sciences, macquarie university, nsw, 2109, australia; f earth institute & school of biology and environmental science, university college dublin, dublin 4, ireland; g marine biotechnology program, instituto de estudos do mar almirante paulo moreira (ieapm), arraial do cabo, brazil and federal fluminense university, niterói, brazil; h marine biotechnology department, instituto de estudos do mar almirante paulo moreira, arraial do cabo, brazil; i national centre for coasts and climate, school of biosciences, the university of melbourne, vic, 3010, australia; j institute for marine and antarctic science, university of tasmania, hobart, tas, 7000, australia; k centro interdipartimentale di ricerca per le scienze ambientali (cirsa), alma mater studiorum – universita di bologna, via s. Alberto 163, 48123, ravenna, italy; l centre for marine socioecology, university of tasmania, hobart, tasmania, 7053, australia; a school of environment, northeast normal university, changchun, jilin, 130117, china; b key laboratory of urban wastewater treatment in jilin province, changchun college of engineering, changchun, 130012, jilin, china; ??????? ???????????: In 2024, 23 most recent examples of citations of the series of articles (environmental science, ecotoxicology, bioscience) of msu authored or co-authored by a researcher at msu, s.A.Ostroumov. The data from elibrary, updated 07.06.2024. The citations were made in russia, italy, canada, china, pakistan, australia, u.K., Italy, ireland, india, brazil, et al. ??????? ??????????? ? 2024 ?????????? ??? (????? ?? ?????????? ?????, ????????, ???????????????, ???????????????, ????????), Selected. Posted by dr green 168 ? J june, last 100 posts, environmental science, online publications, italy, china, brazil, iraq: new citations... 2 examples of highly useful, featured aquatic ecol... Biomachinery, new ecology terminology. This is ano... 36-university consortium cited this paper favorabl... Brazil, federal university of ceará, cited (favora... Italy, 36-university consortium cited it conisma, ... Italy, university of salento, conisma, consorzio n... Italy, brazil, 2024: new citation of : some aspec... China, 2024, nanjing audit university, joint rese... China, 2024, xi’an university of architecture and... 10 most-viewed, on last 24 hours, posts on environ... 5 last posts, environmental science, c china, 202... China, 2024, in green development paper, the new ... Top-6, these are 6 most viewed posts, on last 24 h... On citation of some scientific publications (envir... 22 top universities and institutions - belgium, sw... Belgium cited; the multi-author paper of belgian s... On citations of papers of msu: research of water filtration by organisms that was... Belgium, ghent university: recently, 2024, cited, ... Recently, 2024, new influential citation. In belg... 2024, in belgium, a new citation of papers which a... 100 last posts in april, last 24 hours, top-10, mo... 100 last posts in may: italia. Università di bolog... All posts in june (79): more than 500 400 hig... More than 500 relevant publications, research res... 400 highly cited research papers (environmental sc... Last 24 hours, these are the 3 most-viewed posts: ... 300 top relevant, useful papers, in convenient, i... 300 recommended, featured, favorably cited papers. 26-page list of recommended, relevant papers on en... ??????? ?????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ?... 300 useful publications of the profile of a resea... Top-7, last 7 days,most viewed, environmental s... Top-3, the most popular with users, most-viewed on... Semantic scholar indexed this innovative paper: bi... Semantic scholar and 5 top-relevant papers on envi... Top-10, the most-viewed publications, online posts... 450-500. Papers ## 450-500 out of the bigger list... Featured, innovative papers, 953 useful links, sim... The top university in japan and asia cited favorab... This online publication contributes to scientific ... Japan, top university, 2024, cited the article: on... Relevant paper. ? ????????????? ? ???????????? ???... More than 300 universities cited these. China and japan cited: on the biotic self-purific... Chinese universities liked, approved, used, cited ... New book: ecological biotechnology of biosphere: ... In simple format: china, northeast normal unive... In 2024, in china, northeast normal university, c... 400-450. References 400-450 out of the bigger lis... 953 top useful papers with links, simple format li... 10 champs, on last week these are the most-read po... Googlescholar indexed these 200 relevant papers on... Citation of papers of msu, 2024. ??????? ?????? ??... Cited in 2024. 23 most recent examples of citation... 100 recent examples of citations of the series of ... Recent relevant papers (100), environm. Sci., Easy... U.S., American universities cited, mentioned these... 5 champs of last 24 hours: 5 most-viewed posts, on... In polish. Wyja?Nienie nowo?Ci, dlaczego ta praca... Sweden. Favorable international citation of water ... U.S., Florida international university. They cited... 100 papers, out of recent publications of this aut... 20 last publications of this author, msu, environm... In arabic: ??? ???????? ????? ?? ????????? ???? ?... In chinese: ??????????????????????????????????????... In portuguese: explicação da novidade, por que est... In spanish: explicación de la novedad, por qué est... In italian: spiegazione della novità, perché ques... In german: erklärung der neuheit, warum dieses for... In french: explication de la nouveauté, pourquoi c... In arabic and in english. Explanation of a useful ... Explanation of novelty, why this research paper wa... Lots of first-class universities, including the w... 300+ institutions cited. 300+ institutions cited. ... Concise summary on recent citations (in 2024) of r... Philippines, davao oriental state university, in 2... Young scientists cited it in 2024: new definiti... Wyja?Nienie nowo?Ci, dlaczego ta praca badawcza by... In spanish: explicación de la novedad, por qué es... In french: explication de la nouveauté, pourquoi ... In chinese: ??????????????????????????????????????... Explanation of novelty, why it was highly cited in... U.S.And italian scientists cited these aquatic eco... 100 posts, in april, environmental science, ecolog... 100 posts, in may, environmental science, ecology,... Last posts, june, 2024, environmental science, 8487 citations of papers, research results - envi... China, citation, msu. ???????????????????????????... Chinese universities cited. These top-active chine... In turkey, university scientists (ege university, ... Evaluation of experts. ?????? ???????????? ??????... On citation (favorable) of relevant research artic... 953 simple format list of relevant papers, useful ... South china normal university, ??????????????????... ???????????????????2024? ??????????? ???????????... China. 2024, south china normal university cited t... China. Northwest a&f university cited this research ; 26 ? 3 300+ top institutions, updated 20.07.2024. Over 300 top universities, institutions cited these articles. 300+ institutions, universities worldwide cited - favorably -the publications (environmental science) of the series: 953 useful papers with links, simple format list of relevant papers, useful bibliography, with web-addresses, websites to get full-texts free, links to relevant publications and files, environmental science, bioscience, water, ecotoxicology: publications, results of research conducted at msu, moscow state university, last editing made 30.06.2024; the 900+ links to these well-cited articles are here: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/06/953-useful.Html ; https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/07/300-top-institutions-updated-20072024.Html ; posted by dr green 24 ? C citation, cited innovative paper: biomachinery for maintaining water quality and natural water self-purification in marine and estuarine systems: elements of a qualitative theory posted by dr green 22 ? I in hindi. Posted by dr green 21 ? Asia cited. Posted by dr green 21 ? 953 useful papers, books, with links, environmental science, simple format list of relevant articles, useful bibliography, with web-addresses, websites to get full-texts/more info free, posted by dr green 21 ? Last 21 publications environmental sciences. ????????? ?????????? (21). ??????????? ????????? ?.?. ??????????? ? ???? ?????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????? // ??????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????, 2015. ??? 1. ?. 30–32. Https://www.Academia.Edu/122143291/ dr green dr green published • jul 18 ? 0 ? 3 ? S some publications and links. Biosphere. Dr green dr green published • jul 18 ? 0 ? 5 ? B biomachinery article on a new ecological theory and its citation (favorable). The article: [pdf] biomachinery for maintaining water quality and natural water self-purification in marine and estuarine systems: elements of a qualitative theory sa ostroumov - international journal of oceans and oceanography, several examples of citations, mentions (favorable) of this article: see here: https://5bio5.Blogspot.Com/2024/07/these-papers-selected-cited-innovative.Html dr green dr green published • jul 18 ? 0 ? 4 ? T these papers (selected) cited the innovative article on a new biomachinery theory: biomachinery for maintaining water quality and natural water self-purification in ... More than 40 examples of citations to this article (according to google scholar), all citations are favorable, the citations were made in several languages, english, french, russian, spanish, polish, arabic, czech, et al.: This biomachinery article was cited in: anthropogenic pollution gradient along a mountain river affects bacterial community composition and genera with potential pathogenic species a lenart-boro?, P boro?, K kulik, j prajsnar… - scientific reports, 2022 - nature.Com mountain regions in poland are among the most frequently visited tourist destinations, causing a significant anthropogenic pressure put on the local rivers. In this study, based on … save cite cited by 13 related articles all 13 versions [pdf] springer.Com the effect of anthropogenic pressure shown by microbiological and chemical water quality indicators on the main rivers of podhale, southern poland a lenart-boro?, A wolanin, e jelonkiewicz… - … science and pollution …, 2017 - springer this study was aimed to determine the spatial variation in anthropogenic pressure exerted on surface water in the podhale region (southern poland), which is one of the most popular … save cite cited by 57 related articles all 19 versions [pdf] academia.Edu inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification sa ... - Hydrobiologia, 2002 - springer top-down control is an important type of interspecies interactions in food webs. It is especially important for aquatic ecosystems. Phytoplankton grazers contribute to the top … save cite cited by 128 related articles all 14 versions [pdf] hal.Science response of water-exchange capacity to human interventions in jiaozhou bay, china y yuan, i jalón-rojas, xh wang - estuarine, coastal and shelf science, 2021 - elsevier intensive anthropogenic activities, land reclamation, a cross-bay bridge construction, and the correction of red island have significantly changed the topography of jiaozhou bay … save cite cited by 19 related articles all 6 versions [pdf] ajol.Infofull view untreated wastewater as a source of carbapenem-resistant bacteria to the riverine ecosystem j hrenovic, g durn, s kazazic, s dekic, ms music - water sa, 2019 - ajol.Info bacteriological pollution, especially that including clinically important bacteria, of the aquatic environment caused by anthropogenic pressure attracts much attention with regard to public … save cite cited by 20 related articles all 27 versions [pdf] wur.Nl [book] integrated pollution prevention and control for the municipal water cycle in a river basin context: validation of the three-step strategic approach a galvis-castaño - 2019 - taylorfrancis.Com the protection of water resources from deterioration in quality by pollution discharges is probably the biggest challenge in sustainable water resources management in the recent … save cite cited by 7 related articles all 12 versions [pdf] ethernet.Edu.Et ecohydrology: understanding and maintaining ecosystem services for iwrm ak saha, sg setegn - … of integrated water resources management: water …, 2015 - springer since historical times, natural ecosystems such as forests and wetlands are known to regulate water flow and maintain water quality. The past half a century however has … save cite cited by 10 related articles all 5 versions [pdf] infona.Pl assessment of microbiological quality of water in the nowohucki reservoir with particular regard to microorganisms potentially dangerous to humans k wolny-ko?Adka - medycyna ?Rodowiskowa-environmental medicine, 2016 - infona.
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    AROUND TOWN | News | westlifenews.com
    Posted on Wednesday, July 24 @ 00:00:17 PDT (0 reads)
    College Guide Avon annual scholarships avon lake american legion post 211 has awarded $36,000 in annual scholarships to high school students and first year college students whose parents/grandparents are members of the post. Other special requirements,as well, were met by the highly qualified recipients. Last year recipients had the opportunity to apply again if criteria were met and two first-year college students were awarded. In addition, seven new scholarships were awarded for a total of nine. Each scholarship was in the amount of $4,000 for a total of $36,000 awarded. School dates the avon local schools is taking back-to-school updates from students for the upcoming school year at [avonlocalschool.Org](http://avonlocalschool.Org). The information needs to be submitted annually and is due on july 29. Also, if your child will be five years old by aug. 1, it is time to register the child in avon local schools’ kindergarten. The options and registration are on the district’s website at [www.Avonlocalschools.Org/enroll/new/new_student](http://www.Avonlocalschools.Org/enroll/new/new_student_o)_registration. At 3 p.M. On aug. 7, the district will be holding a meeting on the district’s strategic plan at the avon middle school’s media center. And on aug. 16 registration closes for the district’s eagles n.E.S.T. Morning and afternoon pre- and after-school care program. Story time in the woods avon branch library hosts activities, music and nature-themed stories, weather permitting, at every child’s playground, 36265 detroit road, from at 10:30-11 a.M. Fridays, july 26, aug. 9, aug. 23. The same program will be held in north ridgeville’s south central park, 7565 avon belden road, 10:30-11 a..M. Fridays aug. 2 and sept. 6. Go to [lorainpubliclibrary.Org/programs](http://lorainpubliclibrary.Org/programs) for information. Pool party the city’s avon aquatic facility’s group of sponsors will host a float party for residents at the pool, 36265 detroit road, from 5-7:30 p.M. On wednesday july 31. Music from dj steve, games and other family fun will flow and the concessions stand will be open. Calling all writers the avon branch library, 37485 harvest drive, is hosting writers group sessions from 6-7 p.M. Wednesdays through aug. 7. Engage in writing exercises, peer critiques and support for your writing project. The north ridgeville branch library, 35700 bainbridge road, is also hosting a writers group from 2-4 p.M. Saturday, aug. 3. Go to [lorainpubliclibrary.Org/programs](http://lorainpubliclibrary.Org/programs) to sign up. Music makers musical storytime for families with children of all ages, 6:30-7 p.M. Mondays through aug. 5 at the avon branch library, 37485 harvest drive. The north ridgeville branch, 35700 bainbridge road, is holding these sessions at 6 p.M. Tuesdays through aug. 6. Register at [lorainpubliclibrary.Org/programs](http://lorainpubliclibrary.Org/programs). Coffee at cahoon house avon parks and recreation is serving coffee and donuts at the open houses at the historic cahoon house, 2940 stoney ridge road, from 10-11 a.M. Wednesdays, july 24 and 31. Call the avon senior center to reserve a spot at 440-934-2417. Little learners at library children ages 4-5 and caregivers are invited to programs with stories and activities designed to prepare them for kindergarten at the avon branch library, 37485 harvest drive, 10-10:45 a.M. Thursdays, july 25, aug. 1 and aug. 8. Preregister at [lorainpubliclibrary.Org/programs](http://lorainpubliclibrary.Org/programs). Safety town area play children can enjoy organized play at the city’s safety town area behind the board of education building at 36600 detroit road from 9-11 a.M. On friday july 26. Bring a bike helmet. Crushers fireworks the lake erie crushers are crushing it on the field this year and, to attract even more fans, have added themed fireworks after every saturday home game for the rest of the season through aug.29 (game time is 7:05 p.M.) There will also be discounted concessions on saturdays, and kids ages 12 and under are offered free kids meals on sundays. Go to [lakeeriecrushers.Com](http://lakeeriecrushers.Com) for information and tickets. Shred day the avon branch library, 37485 harvest drive, on behalf of the lorain county solid waste district, will take in documents for shredding in its parking lot from 9 a.M.-Noon saturday, july 27. Five grocery-sized or copier paper-sized boxes maximum. Garden club luncheon the herb guild garden club is holding its 38th annual scholarship luncheon on wednesday, aug. 7, at the emerald event center, 33040 just imagine drive. The luncheon will feature craft, culinary, and boutique tables, where items can be purchased. The highlight is a basket raffle with more than 40 baskets, each one worth more than $50. During the luncheon scholarships will be presented to the 2024 winners and money will be raised for next years scholarships. Tickets are $45 for a delicious lunch of chicken francaise. A vegetarian option will be available. A cash bar will be available starting at 10:30 a.M. Tickets are sold in tables of 10, but singles seats are available. Call kathie conrad (215-872-9725) to purchase tickets. Democrats baseball fundraiser the avon democratic club’s annual baseball fundraiser is 7 p.M. Thursday, aug. 8, at the lake erie crushers game, 2009 baseball blvd. Get tickets at [https://secure.Actblue.Com/donate/adcbaseball2024](https://secure.Actblue.Com/donate/adcbaseball2024). For information, go to the club’s website at [www.Avonohdems.Com](http://www.Avonohdems.Com). Main event event the north coast and west shore chambers of commerce are partnering with main event, 35605 chester road, for an event 4-7 p.M., Thursday, aug. 15, where you can “get a taste of what an office holiday party is all about” with food, games, door prizes and networking. Email [director@northcoastchamber.Com](mailto:director@northcoastchamber.Com) for information. Haunt club garage sale the cleveland haunt club is holding the 9th annual haunted garage sale and hearse cruise-in 10 a.M.-4 p.M. On saturday, aug. 17, at crushers stadium, 2009 baseball blvd. This unique halloween themed flea market and car show is a family-friendly event that features over 120 vendor booths, hearses and spooky themed vehicles, food trucks and autograph signings by celebrities andre gower and ryan lambert from the feature film “monster squad.” There will also be some local spooky celebrities and a live performance by the band “eerie invaders.” Admission is $3 for parking. Recycling discontinued the city has removed the recycling bins at city hall due to ongoing issues with contamination. Non-recyclable materials were being mixed in with recyclables, contaminating the bins, as well as the trucks transporting the materials, making it necessary to dispose of the materials in the landfill. Teen tree commissioner avon is looking for a high school student who wants to serve on the tree commission to apply before sept. 4. The application is at [cityofavon.Com](http://cityofavon.Com) and can be submitted to city hall, 36080 chester road. K-9 walk walk with your favorite dog or walk with only your “dogs” to benefit mental health awareness programs for local school students from 10 a.M.-Noon on sunday, september 15 at 3701 veterans memorial parkway. Music, games and silent auctions will be held as well. Register through the hermes racing website at [http://runsignup.Com/race/oh/avon/hopeforbestk9walk](http://runsignup.Com/race/oh/avon/hopeforbestk9walk). Avon lake teen writing ‘drop-ins’ teens with an interest in writing can participate in avon lake public library’s drop-in program being held at 2 p.M. Saturday, july 27, at 32649 electric blvd. Meet fellow writers and share your work in a casual environment. No registration needed. For information, contact julie como at [jcomo@alpl.Org](mailto:jcomo@alpl.Org). Preschool fun the avon lake parks and recreation department holds a squeaky sneakers open gym for children ages 18 months-5 years from 9 a.M.-12:30 p.M. Monday, wednesday & friday at the anchor, 33483 lake road. $2; $20 for 12 visits. Fishing with friends city-sanctioned fishing is free for kids 15 and younger at the pond in walker road park, 31621 walker road, from 10 a.M.-2 p.M. Through saturday, july 27. Art for the golden ages avon lake parks and recreation department is holding senior summer art classes for residents aged 55 and older. Various techniques of drawing, painting and collage will be taught from noon-1:30 p.M. Each tuesday through aug. 13 at the veterans’ memorial park lake house, 32756 lake road. $10 per session. Call 440-930-4135 if you have questions. Yoga in the park the city is holding yoga classes in veterans’ memorial park, 32756 lake road, the mornings of friday, saturday and sunday through sept. 28 (except for aug. 30 & 31). The sessions are 7-8 a.M. Fridays and 9-10 a.M. Saturdays and sundays, weather permitting. Apollo’s fire concert apollo’s fire, cleveland’s baroque orchestra, is presenting “vivaldi’s four seasons rediscovered with songs in celebration of nature” at 7:30 p.M. On friday, july 26, at the avon lake united church of chris, 32801 electric blvd. Go to [apollosfire.Org](http://apollosfire.Org) for information and tickets or call the group’s box office at 216-320-0012. Cookie run 5k the lorain county medical scholarship foundation benefit run starts at 8:30 a.M.; Kids’ run at 8:15 a.M., Saturday, aug. 3, at the kopf family reservation, behind the library at 32649 electric blvd. $25. See [www.Lcmedicalsociety.Com](http://www.Lcmedicalsociety.Com) for information. Tech talks at library the library’s computer tech expert maxx mittelstadt discusses the voice/video/text communication service discord at the bi-monthly tech program from 7-8 p.M. Tuesday, aug. 6, at the avon lake public library, 32649 electric blvd. From 7-8 p.M. Tuesday, aug. 13, the tech talk will be on “scams and cyber security.” Register for the programs at [alpl.Librarymarket.Com](http://alpl.Librarymarket.Com). Reading adventures there’s a little time left for the avon lake public library’s “let the adventure begin” summer reading challenge for all ages, which runs through saturday, aug. 3. Register your reading log by downloading the page from [alpl.Org](http://alpl.Org) or stop in at 32649 electric blvd. Coffee with the superintendent school superintendent joelle magyar will lead the second in a series of coffee talks with the community to discuss issues facing the district, including nov. 5 ballot issues to support the schools. The next talk will be from 9-10 a.M wednesday, aug. 7 at mcdonald’s, 32799 walker road; the kitchen, 32822 walker road, will host a talk from 9-10 a.M. On wednesday, aug. 14. Peter miller open houses the avon lake historical society invites the community to open houses and tours of the peter miller house, 33740 lake road, which is next to the miller road park, from 1-4 p.M. Sunday, aug. 11, and sunday, sept. 15. See perseid meteors the city’s star party this month at walker road park, 31621 walker road, will focus on the annual perseid meteor shower. The parks and recreation program will be from 9:30-11 p.M. On august 12. For updates, check [www.Facebook.Com/avonlakerec](http://www.Facebook.Com/avonlakerec). Bay village kindergarten registration have a student entering kindergarten this august? Make sure they are registered. Call the registrar at 440-617-7300, or visit [www.Bayk12.Org/o/normandy/page/kindergarten](http://www.Bayk12.Org/o/normandy/page/kindergarten). Bayarts thursday markets bayarts will host its thursday markets from 4-7 p.M. Thursdays now through sept. 12 on the bayarts campus, 28795 lake road. Visit for local art, food, live music and more. Admission and parking are free and friendly dogs on leashes are welcome. If you have questions about this event or want to become a vendor, email karen at [karen@bayarts.Net](mailto:karen@bayarts.Net). Food truck friday the city of bay village will host food truck friday from 11:30 a.M.-2 p.M. Fridays through aug. 30 at bay village city hall and the new village green location, 350 dover center road. This friday, july 26 will feature manna and kona ice. Car wash fundraiser the bay high school rockettes will be hosting a car wash fundraiser 10:30 a.M.-1 p.M. Sunday, july 28 at bay middle school, 27725 wolf road. Donations accepted. Summer concert series bayarts will host its summer concert series from 7-9 p.M. Every sunday now through aug. 11, bring your own chair or blanket and congregate on the back lawn of the fuller house, 28795 lake road. These concerts are free and open to the public. Friendly dogs on leashes are welcome. Cash bar available. Sunday, july 28 will feature kingfish, who will perform classic, roots rock and americana music. Bark in the park bayarts will host the second annual bark in the park event from 12-3 p.M. On sunday, aug. 18 at bayarts, 28795 lake road. Bark in the park is a fundraiser to benefit the maintenance of the new bay village dog kennel. The event will showcase pet rescues, pet retailers, services, raffles, food trucks, games, live music, santa, favorite mascots, a pooch parade and more. All dogs must be leashed. No retractable leashes. Raffle tickets will be available for presale the week of aug. 1 on the fundraiser platform rally up. Enter your dog into the pooch parade for $5 at [www.Bayarts.Net/events/bark-in-the-park-fun-raiser](http://www.Bayarts.Net/events/bark-in-the-park-fun-raiser). Membership drive bay music boosters will be holding its annual door-to-door membership drive from 10 a.M.-10 p.M. On saturday, aug. 10. Bay high students who are in chorus, marching band, orchestra and rockettes will knock on doors, asking bay village residents to support them by purchasing a music boosters membership. The bay music boosters is a volunteer, nonprofit organization that supports and promotes music education in bay village city schools. Family rocket day the lake erie nature & science center will host family rocket day from 10 a.M.-12 p.M. And again from 1-3 p.M. On saturday, aug. 10 at 28728 wolf road. Work together as a family or group to build and launch a model rocket. Learn about recent mission launches and where to stream upcoming launches. Recommended for families with children ages 6 and up. Cost is $75 for families and includes one rocket, additional rockets can be purchased for $40 each. Register online at [www.Lensc.Org](http://www.Lensc.Org). 2024-25 coffee chats community coffee chats have been a great way for parents and residents to meet superintendent scot prebles and treasurer meghan rohde. These casual, yet informative events will continue for the 2024-25 school year. Mark your calendars, and plan to attend at least one this school year to meet the central office team and ask questions about the district. The next coffee chat will be held from 7:30-8:30 a.M. On tuesday, october 1 at mojo’s, 600 dover center road. Amy mihaljevic run this year marks the 35th anniversary of amy mihaljevic’s kidnapping. The tragedy will be memorialized by a 5k race and a 1-mile walk in her honor. It will be held at 9 a.M. Saturday, oct. 26, in cahoon park. Those interested are encouraged to sign up for the race now at [www.Runsignup.Com/race/oh/bayvillage/amymihaljevic](http://www.Runsignup.Com/race/oh/bayvillage/amymihaljevic). Entrance cost for the 5k memorial run, 1-mile memorial walk and virtual run/walk is $30 for adults and $20 for those ages 8-18. Funds raised will support police efforts to complete dna testing. Historical society membership membership in the bay village historical society is open to anyone in the community interested in keeping history alive. Families are welcome. Call 216-319-4634 for membership and tour information or visit [https://www.Bayhistorical.Com](https://www.Bayhistorical.Com). Senior transportation senior transportation is available weekdays from 8:30 a.M.-2 p.M. This service is open to bay village residents aged 60 or older or those who reside at the knickerbocker apartments. Transportation is provided within a 10-mile radius of bay village for banking, shopping, pharmacy trips, hairdresser access, medical or physical therapy appointments and more. Prior registration is required. There is no federal government funding for the operation of this program, all operating expenses are paid by the city of bay village. Financial support from the riders is necessary. For questions or to schedule a ride, contact transportation/volunteer coordinator marty mace at 440-899-3410. Special board meeting the bay village city school district board of education will host a special board meeting from 3-5 p.M. On sunday, nov. 10, at the annual ohio school boards association conference at the greater columbus convention center, 400 n high street, columbus. Topics for discussion include board member roles and responsibilities, district finances, the strategic plan, legislative updates and district administration. No action will be taken. This will be in place of the nov. 4 board meeting (work session). Board meeting change the monday, nov. 18, board meeting, which will also be the annual state of the district meeting, will be held at the bay middle school library, 27725 wolf road, instead of the board office. This will allow for a larger expected attendance. Fairview park sip in cruise clifton american legion post 421, 22001 brookpark road, will be holding its sip in cruise at 5-8 p.M. Every friday through sept. 27. All make and models of car are welcome, and music, along with food trucks will be available. The canteen will also be open. Lakewood lakewood art festival on saturday, aug. 3, the lakewood art festival will feature over 175 regional and national artists on detroit avenue from belle avenue to arthur avenue. The festival starts at 10 a.M. And lasts until 6 p.M. It will feature paintings, photography, art glass, prints, sculpture, jewelry and ceramics. This year, the lakewood art festival will celebrate its 47th anniversary, starting back in 1978. This year will see live performances from twelve bands on two stages at the andrews stage and the city center park stage, including charity evonna, hot club of cleveland, country honk acoustic and opus 216. North olmsted swimming lessons if your child is in need of swimming lessons, the recreation center is a great place for this service. From 9 a.M.-1 p.M. Mondays to fridays through aug. 16, the recreation center, 26000 lorain road, is offering swimming lessons for ages 4-12, and there are multiple sessions with small classes available. For more information, visit [https://tinyurl.Com/bdfnwhtd](https://tinyurl.Com/bdfnwhtd). Wooden art there are opportunities to get free art if you are at one of the summer events the city offers, including a concert on saturday, aug. 10, at community park, 28114 lorain road. The north olmsted arts commission will be handing out wooden tiles made into pieces of art at these events. The arts commission is a city commission that promotes fine arts and performing arts in the community. Quick meal clague road united church of christ is offering free grab-n-go meals this month. At 4:30 on saturday, july 27, the church is offering the meals at 3650 clague road. The event is hosted by church of the redeemer united church of christ and clague road united church of christ. Dinners are being handed out until they run out, so get there when you can. Golf outing women golfers are invited to a golf outing with the north olmsted junior women’s club. This is a 501c3 organization that organizes events and donates to charities in the cleveland area. The nine-hole golf outing is happening from 5-10 p.M. On saturday, aug. 10 at north olmsted country club, 5840 canterbury road. For more information, visit [https://northolmsted.Wixsite.Com/nojwc/golfouting](https://northolmsted.Wixsite.Com/nojwc/golfouting). Vendor show if you are looking to save a buck this august, great northern mall is offering a “tax free vendor show.” On aug. 3-4, the mall is hosting the event which will feature local home improvement companies. The event is free, happening at 4954 great northern mall, and for more information call 440-407-6910. North ridgeville baby time at library babies up to 18 months old and their caregivers can bounce, wiggle and play at baby & me sessions held by the north ridgeville branch library, 35700 bainbridge road, from 10-10:30 a.M. Thursdays through aug. 8. Preregister through lorainpubliclibrary,org/programs. Bounce here the big bounce america tour continues its run at victory sports park, 7777 victory lane, from 9 a.M-7 p.M. On friday july 26, saturday, july 27 and sunday july 28. Go to [thebigbounceamerica.Com/event/cleveland](http://thebigbounceamerica.Com/event/cleveland) for tickets and information. Open houses the north ridgeville historical society hosts open houses of the city’s schoolhouse, which was built in 1859, at 5064 jaycox road from 2-5 p.M. On the last sunday of each month through october. For information, go to [northridgevillehistoricalsociety.Com](http://northridgevillehistoricalsociety.Com). Mile mates run club training sessions for the november cleveland stache dash 5k race will be held from 7:30-9 a.M. Sundays july 28-oct. 27 at south central park. Register online at [bit.Ly/nrmilemates](http://bit.Ly/nrmilemates). $120 residents, $130 nonresidents. County strategic plan meetings the lorain county strategic action plan process has entered its task force phase with a series of meetings at several locales in the county, including the north ridgeville branch of the lorain public library system, 35700 bainbridge road, which the public is invited to. The county commissioners began the process earlier this year, which identified five pillars to form a plan around: innovative industry and economic development, transportation, workforce development and education, housing, and natural resources. Task force meetings are happening at the north ridgeville library at these times and dates: from 10 a.M.-Noon aug. 8, when transportation will be discussed and from 10 a.M.-Noon aug. 13 when housing will be discussed. Several other task force meetings are taking place at other locations in the county and can be found at [www.Loraincounty.](Http://www.Loraincounty.Org)us the meetings will set priorities on action plans and will culminate with a summit in october. Contact david greenspan, the project’s coordinator at [dgreenspan@loraincounty.Us](mailto:dgreenspan@loraincounty.Us) or call 440-420-1773 for information. Summer business after hours the lorain county chamber of commerce free networking event will be from 5-7 p.M. On tuesday, july 30 at glow fitness, 39245 center ridge road, suite a. Register by july 23 at [https://business.Loraincountychamber.Com](https://business.Loraincountychamber.Com). Regional trail survey share your thoughts on how to have a better, safer trail network that connect areas through the city and region by taking a survey being conducted in coordination among the metroparks and the northeast ohio areawide coordinating agency at [https://ohmplanning.Typeform.Com](https://ohmplanning.Typeform.Com) through aug. 16. Bible fellowship cornerstone bible fellowship, 36300 center ridge road, is offering a local kids ministry for pre-k thru 12th grade each tuesday night during the upcoming school year. This is a free program the church wants to offer as a service to the north ridgeville and surrounding communities. First congregational church first the first congregational church united church of christ, 36363 center ridge road, last week announced that its newly appointed pastor, rev. Kearstin bailey, is the first openly lbgtq+ pastor in the city’s history. Kearstin was installed on june 30; she had served as the church’s settled pastor since february. The columbus-area native has served the church in boston, hungary and greece. Rocky river jazz keyboards rocky river senior center welcomes rock wehrmann on piano and percussionist mark gonder, who will be joined by keyboardist tim longfellow for a free concert on friday, aug. 16. The jazz concert begins at 1 p.M. Grilled hot dogs are on sale 11:30 a.M.–1 p.M. Party like it’s 1974 the rocky river senior center marks 50 years of service with a selfie contest to explore and discover commemorative sites, plaques, portraits, quilts, benches and trees. The center has developed a guidebook to help others learn about the city’s history. Register for $10 to receive guidebook, follow the clues, take a selfie at each site, then return to verify your visits. The event culminates with a 1974-themed party on sept. 6 when selfie contest prizes are awarded. Call 440-333-6660 [or click to visit our website](https://www.Rrcity.Com/senior-programs) for more details. Language learning the rocky river public library is offering self-guided open hours for language learning. There will be interactive software and equipment prepared for participating patrons. The lessons will be independent with no instructors present. These courses will take place every sunday in the training room from 1 p.M. To 5 p.M. Westlake car show some classic cars will soon be pulling up to a church in westlake. On thursday, aug. 8, westlake united methodist church at 27650 center ridge road is hosting cruisin’ westlake, an opportunity to see many classic, antique and muscle cars. There will be a bbq and refreshments, a dj, coffee and popcorn, prizes and a special visit from the westlake fire department antique fire truck. This event is free, and for more information visit [westlakeumc.Org/news/cruisin-westlake/](http://westlakeumc.Org/news/cruisin-westlake/). Activities at crocker from 11 a.M.-1 p.M. On tuesday, aug. 20, the mall is hosting crocker kids, featuring free activities such as face painting, balloon twister, animal entertainers and glitter tattoos. There will also be music playing and free snacks at the event. Laughs at clague the clague playhouse, 1371 clague road, is hosting a special benefit/event, “a night of comedy,” at 8 p.M. Friday, july 26. Three local comedians, kathie dice, rob coleman and bil benden will take the stage to give out laughs. The show is expected to be two hours; some content may contain adult language. $25. Go to [https://bit.Ly/.Comedyjuly2024](https://bit.Ly/.Comedyjuly2024) for tickets or call 440-331-0403. Art festival it is getting to be that time of year when local, state and national artists gather at the porter public library to display their proud works of art. The westlake-bay village rotary art festival has hosted many artists the last few years, with over 60 in attendance for the 2023 festival. This year, there will be over 70 artist booths set up, and these include westlake high school art teacher will wilson who is known for his experimental and modernist art pieces. There will be food trucks and live music, and the event is free to the public. It is happening from 10 a.M.-5 p.M. Saturday, july 27, at 27333 center ridge road. Golf scramble a special golf outing is happening all day on saturday, aug. 3 at meadowood golf course, 28900 center ridge road. This is the “youth golf scramble,” and there will be two age groups playing: the junior flight, ages 13-15, and the senior flight, ages 16-18. There can be four players per team with a maximum of 18 teams. There will be awards for those who enter first, second, and third place. For more information, visit [www.Cityofwestlake.Org/recreation](http://www.Cityofwestlake.Org/recreation). Crocker handmade market crocker park is hosting the fourth avant-garde summer handmade market. From 11 a.M.-6 p.M. On aug. 3 at 239 market st., The handmade artisan/crafter market will be taking place, with many local vendors and crafters present. This event is free, and any proceeds collected will be donated to a local charity. There will be artisanal soups, candies, cotton candy, jewelry and apparel to choose from. Reach out to becki silverstein at [becki@ag-shows.Com](mailto:becki@ag-shows.Com) for more information. Line dancing what better way to connect with people than participating in a line dancing session? At 1 p.M. On fridays, the community services center, 28975 hilliard blvd., Is hosting line dancing with an instructor. The music playing includes oldies, latin, pop and country. There is no partner needed, and the cost is $6 per session, which should be paid before the session’s start. For more information, contact 440-899-3544. Magic at library those who visit the porter public library from 3-3:45 p.M. Sunday, aug. 11, will be able to watch a talented magician named rick smith jr. Perform at the outdoor friends pavilion. The friends pavilion is a project of over 300 people buying bricks in honor of loved ones and veterans since november 2022. As a result of this $22,000 was raised by the friends of porter public library for future projects. At the event, a kona ice truck will be serving from 2:45-5 p.M., And it is happening at 27333 center ridge road. Lorain county mental health board levy approved the lorain county board of commissioners last week voted for a renewal levy to go on the november ballot for the mental health addiction and recovery services board. The 10-year, 1.2-mill renewal levy would continue to fund about 60% of the board’s budget. The organization provides addiction care services and is the oversight organization for other publicly funded behavioral health service organizations in the county. Last month, the commissioners also voted for a five-year, 1.8-mill renewal levy for the lorain county children services to go on the nov. 5 ballot. Cool traveler contest lorain county is continuing its bicentennial activities with a contest open to the public that involves the 74 historic markers, memorials and places across the county. The “lc cool traveler” contest requires participants to get a “cool traveler fan” from a lorain public library or the lorain county historical society, 284 washington ave. In elyria, which holds a qr code with the locations of the 74 historic sites. Participants must visit at least six of the sites on the historic tour and take a photo at each stop. They can then go to the county’s website at [www.Loraincountyohio.Gov](http://www.Loraincountyohio.Gov) and the lc cool traveler link under the bicentennial tab to fill out the entry form and submit their photos. The deadline is aug. 31 and drawings will occur in september. West shore tax takes a holiday the annual ten-day ohio sales tax holiday expands from midnight on tuesday, july 30 through 11:59 p.M. On sunday, aug. 8. There will be no sales tax applied to purchases of eligible items, like school supplies, of up to $500. For the first time this year, the tax holiday includes dine-in restaurant tabs, except for alcohol purchases. For more details on the rules and what items are eligible for the tax holiday, go to the ohio department of taxation website at [tax.Ohio.Gov](http://tax.Ohio.Gov).
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    July 23 - This Day in History Austro-Hungarian Empire Issues Ultimatum to Serbia
    Posted on Wednesday, July 24 @ 00:00:17 PDT (0 reads)
    College Guide Once again, it should be reiterated, that this does not pretend to be a very extensive history of what happened on this day (nor is it the most original - the links can be found down below). If you know something that i am missing, by all means, shoot me an email or leave a comment, and let me know! http://www.History.Com/this-day-in-history july 23, 1914: austria-hungary issues ultimatum to serbia at six oclock in the evening on july 23, 1914, nearly one month after the assassination of austrian archduke franz ferdinand and his wife by a young serbian nationalist in sarajevo, bosnia, baron giesl von gieslingen, ambassador of the austro-hungarian empire to serbia, delivers an ultimatum to the serbian foreign ministry. acting with the full support of its allies in berlin, austria-hungary had determined in the aftermath of franz ferdinands assassination to pursue a hard-line policy towards serbia. Their plan, developed in coordination with the german foreign office, was to force a military conflict that would, vienna hoped, end quickly and decisively with a crushing austrian victory before the rest of europe—namely, serbias powerful ally, russia—had time to react. As the german ambassador to vienna reported to his government on july 14, the [note] to serbia is being composed so that the possibility of its being accepted is practically excluded. according to the terms of the ultimatum delivered on july 23, the serbian government would have to accept an austro-hungarian inquiry into the assassination, notwithstanding its claim that it was already conducting its own internal investigation. Serbia was also to suppress all anti-austrian propaganda and to take steps to root out and eliminate terrorist organizations within its borders—one such organization, the black hand, was believed to have aided and abetted the archdukes killer, gavrilo princip, and his cohorts, providing weapons and safe passage from belgrade to sarajevo. The dual monarchy demanded an answer to the note within 48 hours—by that time, however, anticipating serbian defiance, gieslingen had already packed his bags and prepared to leave the embassy. while the world waited for serbias response, germany worked diplomatically to contain the effects of the ultimatum, but none of the other great powers, with reason, were inclined to see austria-hungary, with its relatively weak military, as acting alone. By 1914, the battle lines had been drawn in europe: if germany stood with austria-hungary against serbia (and by extension, russia) then russias allies, france and britain, would be likely to step into the fray as well. the british cabinet, just after receiving the news of the austrian note to serbia, held a meeting in london, one that had previously been devoted to discussing irelands desire for independence. This note, as winston churchill famously wrote, was clearly an ultimatum, but it was an ultimatum such as had never been penned in modern times. As the reading proceeded it seemed absolutely impossible that any state in the world could accept it, or that any acceptance, however abject, would satisfy the aggressor. The parishes of fermanagh and tyrone faded back into the mists and squalls of ireland, and a strange light beganto fall upon the map of europe. on receipt of the ultimatum, serbia at once appealed to russia, whose council of ministers met on july 24 to determine a course of action. Russian foreign minister sergey sazonov voiced his belief that germany was using the crisis over the archdukes death as a pretext for starting a preventive war to defend its interests in the region. Defying austro-german expectations that russia would back down in the case of such a conflict, the council agreed to order four military districts to prepare for mobilization. meanwhile, in belgrade on the afternoon of july 25, convinced that austria-hungary was preparing for a fight, serbian prime minister nicola pasic ordered the serbian army to mobilize. Pasic himself delivered the serbian answer to the ultimatum to gieslingen at the austrian embassy, just before the 6 p.M. Deadline. Serbias response effectively accepted all terms of the ultimatum but one: it would not accept austria-hungarys participation in any internal inquiry, stating that this would be a violation of the constitution and of the law of criminal procedure. This response did much to appeal pasic and his country to international observers of the conflict; to vienna, however, it made little difference. Gieslingen, bags packed and car waiting to drive him to the railroad station, broke the dual monarchys diplomatic relations with serbia and left to catch his train. Three days later, on july 28, 1914, austria-hungary declared war on serbia, beginning the first world war. here was something of relevance that occurred on this date as well: marshal henri pétain a hero for france for world war i, and the dictator of france during the dark days of the authoritarian vichy regime, died on this day in 1951. july 23, 1951: petain, leader of the vichy government, dies on this day in 1951, general henri-philippe petain, french national hero of world war i, who was convicted of collaboration with the german occupiers of his country during world war ii and sentenced to life in prison, dies. He is 95. a graduate of saint-cyr military academy, petain served as a second lieutenant in the alpine regiment, where he developed a reputation for camaraderie with the average foot soldier. He then went on to a controversial teaching career at the war college, where he propounded theories that were in direct conflict with commonly held ideas, especially his contention that a strong defense was the key to victory, not the always be on the attack strategy common to the french military at the time. during world war i, general petain distinguished himself at the battle of verdun, during which he successfully repulsed german attacks on the fortress city. He was an inspiration to his troops and successfully squelched near mutinies within the army after disastrous offensives led by general robert-georges nivelle. Petain regained the confidence—and loyalty—of those soldiers when he was named nivelles successor, improving their living conditions and initiating open communication between command and troops. after the outbreak of world war ii, petain was named vice premier by premier paul reynaud. As germany began to overrun more french territory, the french cabinet became desperate. Reynaud continued to hold out hope, refusing to ask for an armistice, especially now that france had received assurance from britain that the two would fight as one, and that britain would continue to fight the germans even if france were completely overtaken. But others in the government were despondent and wanted to sue for peace. Reynaud resigned in protest. Petain then formed a new government and asked the germans for an armistice—in effect, surrendering. The man who had become a legendary war hero for successfully fighting off a german attack on french soil was now surrendering to hitler. in the city of vichy, the french senate and chamber of deputies conferred on the 84-year-old general the title of chief of state, making him a virtual dictator—although one controlled by berlin. Petain believed that he could negotiate a better deal for his country—for example, obtaining the release of prisoners of war—by cooperating, or, as some would say, appeasing, the germans. when paris was finally liberated by general charles de gaulle in 1944, petain fled to germany. He was brought back after the war to stand trial for his double-dealing ways. He was sentenced to death, which was then commuted to life in solitary confinement. He died at 95 in a prison fortress. Ironically, the man responsible for saving his life was de gaulle. He and petain had fought in the same unit in world war i. Petains bravery during that world war had not been forgotten. i thought that this was pretty interesting, as well. Roger sherman, one of the founding fathers, died on this day in 1793: july 23, 1793: connecticut patriot roger sherman dies on this day in 1793, roger sherman, a connecticut patriot and member of the committee of five selected to draft the declaration of independence, dies of typhoid in new haven, connecticut, at age 72. Sherman alone among the patriots of the american revolution signed all four documents gradually assigning sovereignty to the new united states: the continental association of 1774, the declaration of independence, the articles of confederation and the united states constitution. Thomas jefferson credited sherman with having never said a foolish thing in his life. although sherman was a self-educated shoemaker, raised on the western frontier of massachusetts, he would eventually distinguish himself as a surveyor and astronomer; join the bar of litchfield, connecticut; and serve as both a professor of religion and treasurer of yale college in new haven, connecticut. He served in numerous elective and judicial offices, including in the second continental congress, in the connecticut general assembly, and as justice of the peace, justice of the superior court of connecticut and a representative in the first united states congress. Sherman was the mayor of new haven and a member of the united states senate at the time of his death. Sherman was as prolific in his personal life as he was in his political career. He had seven children with his first wife, elizabeth hartwell, and eight more with his second wife, rebecca minot prescott. sherman was buried near the yale campus. He is remembered with a statue at the national constitution center in philadelphia and a street named in his honor in madison, wisconsin. Arabs gained control of most of palestine from the byzantine empire on this date in history in 636. Also on this day in 1148, crusaders attacked damascus in syria. Frederik ii crowns himself roman catholic king on this day in 1215. On this day in 1253, jews were expelled from vienne, france, by order of pope innocent iii. More depressing news, as it was on this day in 1298 that the rindfleisch persecutions too place, when a jewish community in wurzburg germany, was massacred. The battle of shrewsbury, fought between the percys against king henry iv, took place on this day in 1403. On this day in 1431, g cesarini opened the counsel of basel (ferrara/florence). The battle at gavere, where philip the good defeated the gentse rebellion, took place on this day in 1453. In 1532, karel i & the evangelical monarchy signed the peace of neurenberg on this date. Also on this day in 1540, the ottoman empire recognized janos sigismund zapolyai as vassal-king of hungary. The battle at grevelingen took place o this day in 1558, when general and earl lamoraal van egmont defeated france on this day. Caravaggios first public commission for paintings fell on this day in 1599. On this day in 1632, threee hundred colonists left dieppe, france, heading for new france (canada). On this day in 1645, aleksei mihailovitch romanov succeeded his father michael as czar of russia. Four british ships arrived at boston on this day in 1664 to force the dutch out of new york. The first lighthouse in the united states was authorized for construction at little brewster island, massachusetts, on this day in 1715. In 1726 on this day, benjamin franklin sailed back to philadelphia. Charles stuart, the younger, landed at eriskay island, hebrides, on this day in 1745. In 1764 on this day, james otis published views on taxation without representation. The prussians conquered mayence on this day in 1793. Napoleon captured alexandria, egypt, on this day in 1798. Robert emmett led a rebellion in dublin, ireland, on this day in 1803. The battle of mogilev between russia and france took place on this day in 1812 in the early stages of napoleans invasion of russia. It was on this day in 1829 that william burt patented the typographer, which was essentially the first typewriter. On this day in 1834 the hms beagle, which of course was part of the journey where young charles darwin would develop his theories on the evolution of species, anchored in bay of valparaiso in chile. The union act was passed by british parliament on this day in 1840, uniting upper & lower canada. On this day in 1848, the battle of custoza in theitalian war of independence began. In 1851 on this day, the treaty of traverse des sioux was signed between sioux indians and the united states. The jewish disabilities removal act was passed by the british parliament on this day in 1858. In 1864 on this day during the american civil war, the battle of woodstock, virginia took place. On this day in 1870, emperor napoleon iii appointed the empress eugenie as regent of france. Aires de ornelas e vasconcelos was appointed as the archbishop of the portuguese colonial enclave of goa.On this day in 1874. The first telephone & telegraph line in hawaii completed on this day in 1877. Also, on this day in 1880, the first commercial hydroelectric power planet was started in grand rapids, michigan. Ulysses s. Grant, the 18th president of the united states, died on this day in 1885 at mount mcgregor, n.Y., At the age of 63. On this day in 1900, the pan-african congress met in london. In 1903 on this day, the ford motor company sold its first model a car. Heres a good one for these hot summer days: t he ice cream cone was invented by charles e. Menches on this day in 1904 during the louisiana purchase exposition in st. Louis, missouri. There were po groms against jews in odessa on this day in 1906. On this day in 1913, arabs attacked the jewish community of rechovot in palestine. On this day in 1914, shortly after the assassination of archduke francis ferdinand by a serbian assassin, austria-hungary issued an ultimatum to serbia. This was one of the major actions that ultimately led to the outbreak of world war i. British east africa was renamed kenya on this day in 1920 & became a british crown colony. The chinese communist party formed on this day in 1921 under henk sneevliet. 1926 - on this day in 1926 in france, the government of poincaré was formed. In 1929 on this day, the fascist government of italy banned the use of foreign words. One year later, an earthquake struck in ariano italy, with 1,500 ultimately killed. On this day in 1935, an airplane crashed into the empire state building. In science new, on this day in 1937, the isolation of pituitary hormone was announced at yale university. This is also the anniversary of the german bombing of london during an all night blitz air raid by german bombers. This was a busy day during world war ii in 1942. On this day, the germans conquered rostow. Also on this day in 1942, hitlers directive #45, an order for german troops to occupy stalingrad, was issued. Ultimately, however, the german army was not able to satisfy this order by hitler, and that would prove to be the major turning point of the war against the germans. Also on this day in 1942, the treblinka concentration camp was destroyed. Finally on this day in 1942, operation edelweiss was begun. This say is the anniversary of battle of koersk in 1943, when soviets forces defeated nazi germany defeat (6,000 tanks). On that same day, the us 45th infantry division occupied the north coast of termini. On this day in 1944, the conference of bretton woods was signed; and the imf operations began. This day in history was a busy one in 1944 during world war ii. The soviet army marched into lublin, poland. Also on this day in 1944, american forces invaded japanese-held tinian in the pacific, and occupied pisa, italy in europe. On this day in 1945, the former world war i hero turned disgraced french collaborationist dictator of the vichy government marshal henri pétain went on trial . He would be given a life sentence. Interestingly, pétain also died on this day in 1951 at the age of 95 and regarded as a disgrace. On this day in 1946, menachem begins opposition group bombed king david hotel. There was a bloodless coup in egypt on this day in 1952, as r evolution broke out in egypt, with the military taking power. The next year, the monarchy was overthrown and abolished, with the day turning into a holiday (national day). For the first time since the days of pharaohs, egypt was again ruled by egyptians. Egyptian military officers led by gamal abdel nasser overthrew king farouk i. General neguib seized power, monarchy overthrown in egypt (natl day). On this day in 1956, the bell x-2 rocket plane set a new world aircraft speed record of 3,050 kph. Also on this day in 1956, the loi cadre was passed by the french republic in order to govern french overseas territory affairs. In 1958 on this day, the first four women were named to peerage in the house of lords in the united kingdom. Also today in 1958, t he submarine nautilus took off from pearl harbor, hawaii, uwith orders to conduct operation sunshine. This mission made this the first vessel to cross the north pole by ship. The nautilus achieved the goal on august 3, 1958. On this day in 1959, american vice-president richard nixon began his visit of the ussr. It was on this day in 1962 that the international agreement on the neutrality of laos is signed. On this day in 1964, the egyptian munition ship star of alexandria exploded at dockside in bone, algeria, killing 100 and injuring 160 more, with $20 million of damage. The beatles released the album help in the uk on this day in 1965. Also in beatles news, the cavern club in liverpool reopened on this day in 1966. It was on this day in 1966 that napoleon xiv released theyre coming to take me away, ha! Ha! There was a major race riot in detroit on this day in 1967, with 43 dying and over 2,000 injured, and with 442 fires overall. On this day in 1968 came the first hijacking by the palestine liberation organization ( plo) of an el al plane. In 1968 on this day, there was a race riot in cleveland, with 11 overall killed, including three police officers. On this day in 1970, qaboos ibn said became the sultan of oman after overthrowing his father, said ibn taimur. in 1972 on this day, the u.S. Launched landsat 1 (erts-1), which proved to be the first earth-resources satellite. On this day in 1973, an ozark al plane knocked out of air by lightning, st louis-36 die. On this day in 1973, president richard nixon refused to release watergate tapes of conversations in the white house relevant to the watergate investigation. In 1974 on this day, the greek military dictatorship collapsed. In 1976 on this day, wings released let em in. The israeli government rejects sadats call for return of 2 sinai areas on this day in 1978, on this day in 1980, billy carter admitted to being paid by libya. In 1980 on this day, president jimmy carter designated the river of no return wilderness area. Also on this day in 1980, the soyuz 37 ferried a couple of cosmonauts (ione was vietnamese) to salyut 6. In 1982 on this day, the fcc approved am stereo radio, ktsa san antonio goes stereo. On this day in 1982, the international whaling commision voted for a total ban on commercial whaling, which began in 1985. In 1986 on this day, king hassan ii met with israeli premier simon peres. 1989 - on this day in fox-tv tops abc, nbc & cbs for 1st time (americas most wanted) 1989 - winds gust to 85 mph at fort smith arkansas 1990 - south-africa workers union leader billy nair arrested 1991 - james farentino of dynasty arrested in canada for cocaine possession 1991 - rob dibble back from 3-game suspension, is ejected for throwing at & hitting cubs baserunner doug dascenzo cubs win, 8-5 1992 - bruce springsteen begins a world tour 1992 - emperor haile selassie, [ras tafari makonnen] of ethiopias, funeral 1993 - boon completes 17th test cricket century, 107 at headingley 1993 - british aerospace 147 crash at yinchuan, 55 killed 1993 - chinese b737 crash at yinchuan, at least 66 killed 1993 - chris boardman bicycles world record 1 hour distance (52,270 km) 1993 - ny yankee mark hutton is 1st australian to be a starting pitcher, he beats angels 5-2; yanks, red sox, blue jays 3 way tie for 1st 1994 - all 40,000 ceiling tiles in kingdome must be replaced 1994 - amy osmond, of utah, 17, crowned americas junior miss 1994 - dancer gene kelly suffers a mild stroke 1994 - don mattingly becomes 6th ny yankee to get 2,000 hits 1994 - goodwill games open in st petersburg 1994 - longest baseball rain delay (3:39) as giants beat mets 4-2 in nyc 1994 - space shuttle sts-65: columbia 17, lands after record 14 days 55 mins 1995 - hamlet closes at belasco theater nyc after 121 performances 1995 - 124th british golf open: john daly shoots a 282 at st andrews scotland 1995 - miguel indurains wins his 5th tour de france 1995 - tracy kerdyk wins lpga jal big apple golf classic 1995 - the hale-bopp comet was discovered by alan hale and thomas bopp, and became visible to the naked eye one year later. 1997 serbian president slobodan milosevic was sworn in as president of the federal republic of yugoslavia. 1997 - dallas tv station kxas settle with dallas cowboys michael irvin & erik williams for reporting false sex assault allegations against them 1998 - u.S. Scientists at the university of hawaii turned out more than 50 carbon-copy mice, with a cloning technique. 1999 - crown prince mohammed ben al-hassan is crowned king mohammed vi of morocco on the death of his father. 1999 - ana flight 61 is hijacked in tokyo, japan. 2000 - 129th british golf open: at royal lytham 2000 - 55th us womens open golf championship 2005 - three bombs explode in the naama bay area of sharm el-sheikh, egypt, killing 88 people. 2008 - cape verde joins the world trade organization, becoming its 153rd member. 2009 - mark buehrle of the chicago white sox becomes the 18th pitcher to throw a perfect game in major league baseball history, defeating the tampa bay rays 5-0. 2012 - a series of attacks across iraq kill 103 people this was an important, if shameful, day in the history of marshal henri pétain, who was sent to trial on this date for treason in 1945, and later died on this same date in 1951. A bloodless coup by the military precipitated a revolution in egypt. South african union leader billy nair was arrested on this day in 1990, while reform was allegedly underway in south africa. 1980 - river of no return wilderness area designated by jimmy carter 1980 - soyuz 37 ferries 2 cosmonauts (1 vietnamese) to salyut 6 1982 - fcc approves am stereo radio, ktsa san antonio goes stereo 1982 - intl whaling comn votes for total ban on coml whaling (starting 1985) 1983 - gimli glider: air canada flight 143 runs out of fuel and makes a deadstick landing at gimli, manitoba. 1984 - kc royals dan quisenberry gets his 200th career save 1984 - suzette charles (nj), 21, replaces williams as 57th miss america 1984 1984 - miss america, vanessa williams, turned in her crown after it had been discovered that nude photos of her had appeared in penthouse magazine. She was the first to resign the title. 1986 - britains prince andrew married sarah ferguson at westminster abbey in london. They divorced in 1996. 1986 - king hassan ii meets with israeli premier simon peres 1987 - petra felke (e ger) throws javelin 78.89 m (womens record) 1987 - rni (bkln ny pirate radio station) begins broadcasting on 1620 am 1987 - red sox waive bill buckner, the goat of last years world series 1987 - said aouita of morocco runs world record 5,000 m (12:58.39) 1988 - saskatchewans dave ridgway kicks record 8 field goals vs edmonton 1989 - 118th british golf open: mark calcavecchia shoots a 275 at royal troon 1989 - amy alcott wins lpga boston five golf classic 1989 - fox-tv tops abc, nbc & cbs for 1st time (americas most wanted) 1989 - winds gust to 85 mph at fort smith arkansas 1990 - rosie jones, (st louis), 26, crowned 22nd miss black america 1990 - south-africa workers union leader billy nair arrested 1991 - james farentino of dynasty arrested in canada for cocaine possession 1991 - rob dibble back from 3-game suspension, is ejected for throwing at & hitting cubs baserunner doug dascenzo cubs win, 8-5 1992 - bruce springsteen begins a world tour 1992 - emperor haile selassie, [ras tafari makonnen] of ethiopias, funeral 1993 - boon completes 17th test cricket century, 107 at headingley 1993 - british aerospace 147 crash at yinchuan, 55 killed 1993 - chinese b737 crash at yinchuan, at least 66 killed 1993 - chris boardman bicycles world record 1 hour distance (52,270 km) 1993 - ny yankee mark hutton is 1st australian to be a starting pitcher, he beats angels 5-2; yanks, red sox, blue jays 3 way tie for 1st 1994 - all 40,000 ceiling tiles in kingdome must be replaced 1994 - amy osmond, of utah, 17, crowned americas junior miss 1994 - dancer gene kelly suffers a mild stroke 1994 - don mattingly becomes 6th ny yankee to get 2,000 hits 1994 - goodwill games open in st petersburg 1994 - longest baseball rain delay (3:39) as giants beat mets 4-2 in nyc 1994 - space shuttle sts-65: columbia 17, lands after record 14 days 55 mins 1995 - hamlet closes at belasco theater nyc after 121 performances 1995 - 124th british golf open: john daly shoots a 282 at st andrews scotland 1995 - miguel indurains wins his 5th tour de france 1995 - tracy kerdyk wins lpga jal big apple golf classic 1995 - the hale-bopp comet was discovered by alan hale and thomas bopp, and became visible to the naked eye one year later. 1997 serbian president slobodan milosevic was sworn in as president of the federal republic of yugoslavia. 1997 - dallas tv station kxas settle with dallas cowboys michael irvin & erik williams for reporting false sex assault allegations against them 1998 - u.S. Scientists at the university of hawaii turned out more than 50 carbon-copy mice, with a cloning technique. 1999 - crown prince mohammed ben al-hassan is crowned king mohammed vi of morocco on the death of his father. 1999 - ana flight 61 is hijacked in tokyo, japan. 2000 - 129th british golf open: at royal lytham 2000 - 55th us womens open golf championship 2005 - three bombs explode in the naama bay area of sharm el-sheikh, egypt, killing 88 people. 2008 - cape verde joins the world trade organization, becoming its 153rd member. 2009 - mark buehrle of the chicago white sox becomes the 18th pitcher to throw a perfect game in major league baseball history, defeating the tampa bay rays 5-0. 2012 - a series of attacks across iraq kill 103 people the following links are to web sites that were used to complete this blog entry: http://www.Historyorb.Com/today/events.Php http://on-this-day.Com/onthisday/thedays/alldays/jul23.Htm http://www.History.Com/this-day-in-history http://www.Infoplease.Com/dayinhistory
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    Alexander Carl Jaffurs, 55
    Posted on Wednesday, July 24 @ 00:00:17 PDT (0 reads)
    College Guide Of leonardtown, md, passed away peacefully on july 18, 2024 surrounded by his loving family. Beloved husband of christine o’connell jaffurs and loving father to nicholas and gina. Also survived by his brothers; jason and rip jaffurs as well as numerous nieces and nephews. Alex was born on november 21st, 1968 in pittsburgh, pa to the late alexander and stella (nee: kourakos) jaffurs. Alex and christine first laid eyes on each other on the playground in kindergarten. They were classmates in high school and began dating in college at the university of pittsburgh where alex earned bachelor degrees in political science, philosophy and mathematics and a masters in arts and teaching. Alex and christine were married on july 6, 1996, in pittsburgh pa and moved to maryland where they began their life together. Alex thought you could never learn too much, and went on to earn his doctorate in education, from the university of maryland. But his true passions were teaching and coaching. He spent most of his life mentoring and coaching countless student-athletes, but his two favorite athletes were his own children, nicholas and gina as he coached everything they played. They were his world and his heart. He was employed as the assistant superintendent for st. Mary’s county public schools. He took great pride in his greek heritage and enjoyed the pittsburgh steelers, playing fantasy football, and spending time at his home away from home in ocean city maryland. Alex saw the best in everyone and opened doors and touched the lives of so many from different communities family will receive friends for alex’s service on thursday, july 25, 2024 from 4:00 to 7:00 p.M. At brinsfield funeral home, p.A., 22955 hollywood road, leonardtown, md 20650. A mass of christian burial will be celebrated by reverend scott woods on friday, july 26, 2024 at 11:00 a.M., At st. Aloysius gonzaga catholic church, 22800 washington street, leonardtown, md 20650. Condolences may be made to the family at www.Brinsfieldfuneral.Com. Arrangements by the brinsfield funeral home, p.A., Leonardtown, md.
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    Jon Voight on Being Hollywood’s Most Outspoken Trump Supporter and Fighting Ange
    Posted on Wednesday, July 24 @ 00:00:17 PDT (2 reads)
    College Guide Jon voight keeps moving. The 85-year-old actor is shadowboxing, his footwork nimble for a man of any age, let alone someone older than even joe biden and voight’s friend donald trump. he pauses and arches an eyebrow and becomes a matinee villain. “You think you’re tough. I’ll show you tough.” today, we’re outside his beverly hills home. There’s a pool and a driveway where voight designed the pavement that features tiny ducklings, rabbits, monkeys and a dragon etched into the cement. Near the entrance are the words “wots modder wot you jonny,” in honor of his czech grandfather who never quite mastered english. related stories vip+ paramount+ biggest challenge: boosting subscriber engagement with inside out 2 and despicable me 4 propping up the summer box office, could 2024 be the year of animation? i’ve talked with voight many times over the past year, and he is always engaging. But the presence of a photographer has kicked him into a high gear. He picks up a plastic rabbit in his yard and speaks to it, elmer fudd style. “Wabbit, i told you to stay away from me.” popular on variety his antics have a manic “let’s put on a show” quality to them, not unlike the comedy stylings of sid caesar, one of voight’s boyhood heroes. Today, voight doesn’t resemble any of the troubled men tortured by circ*mstances he’s played in his six-decade career, including would-be hustler joe buck in “midnight cowboy,” paralyzed vietnam vet luke martin in “coming home,” and ed gentry, a suburban everyman turned avenging killer in ”deliverance.” Today, he’s all loopy grandpa, which is a role he plays for his six grandchildren now that he has reconciled with his once-estranged daughter, angelina jolie. camping it up for the camera, voight seems to be reprising a recent note — one he plays in francis ford coppola’s dystopian “megalopolis,” where his crassus reigns as a wine-addled emperor over a decadent new rome, a fictional version of a future new york city. Any film with shakespeare shoutouts and ayn rand references is bound to be a bloated mess, and coppola’s passion project features a high ratio of great actors giving the worst performances of their careers. Still, voight shines in a gob-smacking way as the richest and hornie*st man in town. He sports a caesar cut and gets busy with a woman a half-century his junior named wow platinum. In the film, voight staggers around, a silk-pajama-clad lear on a bender, dropping bons mots like “what do you think of my boner?” Before shooting an arrow through his lover’s heart. One critic wondered if voight knew he was on a movie set during his scenes. I assure you, for “megalopolis,” that’s a terrific compliment. coppola’s film, which premiered last spring at cannes, is all about the fall of an empire, and this is something that concerns voight greatly. on may 31, shortly after the conviction of donald trump for tax fraud, voight posted a video lacerating president joe biden. In it, voight, seated in front of an american flag, unleashes a stream of invectives that are all the more startling if you’ve spent time with the otherwise soft-spoken actor. “We’re allowing this sick president biden to give permission for all to steal, cheat, lie and kill,” he says, “and no one is paying the ultimate price for this. We must stop these animals.” no one is spared voight’s seething right-wing political opinions, including his daughter, who he feels has fallen victim to antisemitic subterfuge. (“Angelina wishes him well but does not speak about him publicly,” said a source close to the actress.) He says her politics are, to put it mildly, not his, while his are the subject of an endless circular conversation — especially now that trump is on the upswing. The actor is a staunch supporter of israel, most recently its response to hamas’ oct. 7 attacks, and jolie is a longtime refugee activist, currently decrying israel’s killing of women and children in gaza. In our conversations, voight never lets it go, criticizing her palestinian stance repeatedly, like a candidate going after an opponent in a 30-second ad. “She has been exposed to propaganda,” he says. “She’s been influenced by antisemitic people. Angie has a connection to the u.N., And she’s enjoyed speaking out for refugees. But these people are not refugees.” back in beverly hills, voight keeps it light. We move into the house, and he bounds up the stairs to his bedroom. Hanging on the wall are faux stones from the 1999 tv miniseries “noah’s ark,” in which voight portrayed the titular character. There’s his easel and a large photo of his father. He puts on a robe and spreads out on his bed. A giant smile crosses his face, and his blue eyes are lit. “What else do you need?” once the photographer leaves, voight falls into a chair at his dining room table. He looks tired. It has already been an exhausting summer. Not only is he doing press for “megalopolis,” but he’s getting ready to move from the house where he’s lived for the past two decades. his home currently resembles a set being struck down. There are boxes of books scattered everywhere. His oscar for “coming home” is somewhere on the premises. In the living room, large framed photographs of mother teresa, martin luther king jr. And various indian yogis dominate the space. Upstairs, photos of jolie and her ex-husband brad pitt are prominently displayed, including a 2008 people magazine cover of the couple holding newborn twins. (The family photos cut out of magazines roughly correspond with the times when voight and jolie were estranged.) Downstairs, there’s a sketchbook and a drawing for his granddaughter vivienne that he will send her wishing her a happy birthday and congratulating her on the success of broadway’s “the outsiders,” which voight says she brought to jolie’s attention, and they went on to produce together. voight’s doting side is one that’s far removed from the gallery of eccentrics he’s come to specialize in on-screen. Crassus is just the latest in a line of gonzo performances in a 60-year career that includes voight as voight biting kramer’s arm on “seinfeld,” an appearance as a blind indian in oliver stone’s “u turn,” and an ahab-like snake hunter in “anaconda,” who gets eaten and regurgitated by his own white whale. The more insane the part, the more outrageous the challenge, the better for voight. “i appreciate the great ones like spencer tracy and cary grant,” he says about his favorite actors. “But for me it was always lon chaney with his makeup bag.” two of the best examples of voight’s approach to morphing into characters include his appearances as nate, a criminal operator with some startling facial disfigurements in “heat” and his chameleonic oscar-nominated turn as sportscaster howard cosell in “ali,” both michael mann films. “for jon, the transformation, that’s the adventure,” says mann. “The adventure is the wild way he gets to transform himself to get into this character. As a director, i know enough about jon that the further into outer space the idea is, the more attractive it is.” mann says that voight spent more than four hours every day in makeup being transformed into cosell. Between takes, voight and will smith, as muhammad ali, would verbally spar in character to the delight of hundreds of extras. “I was trying to set up shots, and then all of a sudden, these guys are doing ad-libs so good i’m trying to write it down,” says mann. praise like that is what keeps voight working in lefty hollywood even as he compares joe biden to satan and muses that george soros is hell-bent on destroying the country. Hollywood is in a recession, and trumpists like scott baio and kevin sorbo have been banished to right-wing productions and reality tv. Jon voight? He has appeared in three movies in the past 24 months. sometimes, over the past year, voight called late at night just to say hello. We spoke of blake’s “jerusalem,” our children, renaissance art and how burt reynolds broke his tailbone doing his own stunts in “deliverance.” There were two jons in our conversations: the cultured and kind acting icon, curious about art and poetry, and the right-wing warrior ripping biden and dismissing palestinians as frauds with no claim to the holy land. under normal circ*mstances, an actor of voight’s stature and age would be feted at festivals and film schools, but that’s not been the case with voight, and it undoubtedly connects to his politics. Instead, the actor cuts a forlorn figure, showing up at the occasional party or art gallery in l.A. With his son, james haven. At a gallery opening in beverly hills in december, a visitor whispered to a friend, “that’s jon voight — he says some crazy-ass things.” recently, martin short’s talk-show alter ego jiminy glick turns to actor sean hayes and says, apropos of nothing, “what makes jon voight so angry?” It’s a good question. i meet voight for the first time at a santa monica restaurant. He still has the movie-star blue eyes and wide smile, but depending on where you are sitting, you see two different sides of the actor. His profile from the left features the cheekbones that made him famous. From the right, voight’s face is dented and looks menacing. that day, voight tells me he wants this story to be centered on his acting. That lasts for the first 20 minutes of our relationship. He is showing me renaissance-era paintings on his phone that he took on a recent trip to greece, when a middle-aged woman approaches our table, holding a loaf of challah just purchased for her family’s shabbat dinner. Voight waves her over. She grasps his age-spotted hands: “i just want to thank you for all you have done for israel. It means so much to all of us.” voight thanks the woman, but she isn’t done. “You should play bibi in a movie. You would be perfect!” voight laughs. “He’s a great, great man,” he says, “but i’m not going to play him.” remarkably, an almost identical scene occurs a few months later, when voight and i meet at the beverly glen deli, his favorite hangout. Same-age woman, same sentiment. (I put the chances of this being an elaborate setup at less than 10%.) voight often acts startled when bystanders, reporters and legendary directors want to engage with him on politics, despite his x and instagram posts and occasional fox news appearances. (His videos in support of trump and israel have millions of hits.) At the cannes press conference for “megalopolis,” coppola spoke in apocalyptic tones of the dire state of american politics. “There is a trend toward the more neo-right, even fascist division, which is frightening,” coppola said. “Anyone who was alive during world war ii saw the horrors that took place, and we don’t want a repeat of that.” “megalopolis” has a definite anti-trump vibe, with jan. 6-style riots featuring red-capped thugs and confederate flags. Some have suggested voight’s crassus is a buffoonish version of trump. I ask voight about it. “i didn’t see that,” he says. “If i had, i would have told francis he was out of line.” coppola remains diplomatic when i ask about voight. “Working with jon is always an interesting, potent and joyful collaboration,” he says. “He’s an artist, and i enjoyed our time together making ‘megalopolis.’” at cannes, coppola played it a little looser. He turned to voight after he finished venting and said, “jon, you have different political opinions than me.” Then he passed him the microphone. Voight didn’t engage, instead offering generic praise and saying that coppola simply wants to make “a better world.” back in los angeles, voight sounds hurt. “i’ve been telling francis to make that movie for over 30 years,” he says, looking genuinely confused. “I really don’t know why he thought that was the time to talk about our politics.” after cannes, voight stopped in new york on his way back to take in “the outsiders.” “It was amazing,” he says proudly. “Angie is amazing.” father and daughter seem to be getting along better these days. That is, except when voight is attacking her over the israel-hamas war. Jolie has been an advocate for refugees for more than two decades. She has worked on projects bringing attention to genocides in southeast asia and in the former yugoslavia. People listened when she released a statement last november on the israeli invasion of gaza. “this is the deliberate bombing of a trapped population who have nowhere to flee,” wrote jolie on instagram three weeks into the conflict. “Gaza has been an open-air prison for nearly two decades and is fast becoming a mass grave. 40% of those killed are innocent children. … Whole families are being murdered.” voight responded with his own post on twitter a day later. It started, “i’m very disappointed that my daughter, like so many, has no understanding of god’s honor, god’s truths. This is justice for god’s children of the holy land. ….” this seemed massively counterproductive, because voight has spent the past 30 years trying to right the wrongs of his wild years with his children. And yet, during our conversations, voight, who keeps praising his daughter’s talent and accomplishments, cannot resist repeatedly schooling her on his political worldview. Voight’s relationship with his children has been fraught since their mother, marcheline bertrand, divorced him in 1978, citing adultery. During his children’s adolescence, voight wasn’t around much, and over the years, there have been schisms, silence and reconciliation. “i love my daughter — that’s no. 1,” he says. “I am happy when angie is happy.” His eyes begin to well up with tears. “When she’s having a tough time, i’m having a tough time. When she is down, i’m down.” that sentiment makes his public attacks on his daughter all the more puzzling. For instance, in may, we meet for coffee in hollywood, and voight offers long monologues on the history of the british mandate for palestine and the ottoman empire’s decline that, he says, conclusively prove jolie’s position is profoundly wrong. He then falls back on an old chestnut of hollywood detractors. “angie, i think she hasn’t been available to this information because in hollywood people don’t share this kind of stuff,” he says. “They’re way off. They have no idea what’s going on. It’s a bubble.” leaving aside the fact that voight lives in beverly hills and had us meet twice in the shadow of studio lots, it’s hard to believe that jolie isn’t able to access the right information. I bring this up, and he disagrees. His face goes red, and beads of sweat appear on his forehead. “I love my daughter. I don’t want to fight with my daughter,” he says heatedly. “But the fact is, i think she has been influenced by the u.N. From the beginning, it’s been awful with human rights. They call it human rights, but it’s just anti-israel bashing.” heads turn in the café. Voight is talking louder than usual and continues without taking a breath. “She’s ignorant of what the real stakes are and what the real story is because she’s in the loop of the united nations.” he finally stops and sighs. “Maybe we shouldn’t talk about all this politics stuff.” so we talk about the rape scene in “deliverance.” Voight is convinced that only ned beatty could have done the “squeal like a pig” scene that shocked moviegoers in 1972. “He was so human. Anyone else, and it would have come off as camp.” we finish our coffee and say our goodbyes. That night my phone rings. It’s voight. “Let’s meet again,” he says. “We can talk about how angie is coming across.” voight grew up in yonkers, the middle son of a golf pro and a stay-at-home mom whose great-uncle was an isolationist and a staunch joseph mccarthy supporter. Barbara and elmer voight must have done something right because voight’s brothers also rose to fame, one as a volcanologist and the other as the writer of the troggs classic “wild thing.” His parents nurtured his artistic side, and filled their small apartment with his paintings as a 3-year-old. He still paints, but says he gave up his obsession when his dad took him to the movies when he was 8. “I knew my painting couldn’t keep up with all that action and motion,” voight says. “I wanted to perform.” voight’s father worked at a westchester country club featuring predominantly jewish members shunned by wasp golf courses. It left voight with a specific idea of how an oppressed people should rise above their status. “as a little boy, i remember seeing a life magazine picture of a boy in a striped suit behind barbed wire,” voight says on more than one occasion. “And i thought, ‘that could be me.’ I identified with the suffering of these kids. What i knew very early on from my father’s work and the dinner table was that the people who started this club couldn’t get into other clubs when they came here from europe. And so what did they do? They simply gathered together, got some money, bought land and made their own club. They didn’t riot or protest. From then, i was connected to their culture.” he is convinced that his father’s relationships with the jews at the club changed him forever and allowed him to have the life he has lived. In 2018, he told fox news’ mark levin that his father’s brother and two sisters couldn’t compare to him. “He was so superior in every way,” voight said. “Not to demean them — they were very nice people — but they just didn’t have the grace that he had. And i said to myself, ‘you know something? My dad was raised in the jewish culture. That’s who he is.’” by the transitive property, judaism made jon voight possible since it was his father who encouraged his dreams first while in high school and then at catholic university in washington, d.C. voight told me how in college he worked on his acting technique by going on a date with a different girl every week. “I think they appreciated me because i wasn’t trying to score,” voight says. “I’d listen and try to talk about what they wanted to talk about. I think it made me a better actor.” voight also stumbled across theater critic kenneth tynan’s book “he that plays the king” and made copies of all his reviews of laurence olivier’s performances. “I knew it might take years or decades, or i might not even get there, but that was what i wanted to aim for.” voight told his father that he was moving to new york city after graduation to become an actor. His dad worried about how he would make a living. He suggested an idea not far from the joe buck character arc. “He thought of buying a driving range,” says voight. “He knew i was charming with ladies and could bring them in, and i could make a living and then do auditions on the side.” the plan never materialized. Instead, voight cobbled together a career on broadway before being cast by john schlesinger opposite dustin hoffman in “midnight cowboy.” i wonder what his father thought of his son after he became a movie star, but voight doesn’t want to get into it. later, i give him a book i wrote about my navy pilot father who was killed in a plane crash when i was 13. My phone rings that night. It’s voight. He blurts out something about his past: “my dad died when he was 63. It was a car accident, and my mother was driving.” i don’t know what to say. I tell him that must have been so hard for him. “that was a long time ago,” he says. “Ok, lad, have a good night.” And then he hangs up. voight’s support for israel wasn’t controversial for most of his life, even if his affection for the oft-accused, never-convicted benjamin netanyahu seemed over-the-top. But then came the savage hamas attacks that slaughtered more than 1,100 israelis, including 38 children. Initially, israel had near-global support outside the arab world. Then, as israeli bombs leveled gaza, the united nations and human rights activists began suggesting that israel was repeating the mistakes of america after 9/11, inflicting rage-filled indiscriminate violence on the gazan civilian population resulting in the deaths of an estimated 35,000 palestinians, many of them women and children, as neighborhoods were razed in the pursuit of hamas terrorists. voight doesn’t see it that way. He believes the whole concept of a separate and distinct palestine is an antisemitic con perpetuated by arab countries hell-bent on the destruction of israel with the assistance of the u.N. Voight maintains that the key point in what he calls “the fraud” was when the u.N. Granted refugee status to arabs who had tried to destroy israel in the country’s 1948 war for independence. “Every year, the u.N. Features more antisemitic motions against israel than the ones offered against iraq, china and syria combined,” he says. voight holds a special contempt for activists who have embraced the u.N. Position that there are more than 5 million palestinian refugees in gaza and the west bank. “They are so naive,” he says. “They’re dupes who never get outside of their bubble.” unfortunately, according to voight, one of those “naive dupes” is jolie. there’s a profile of voight from the new york times from back in 1979 that captures the demons that he dealt with in the wake of the success of “midnight cowboy” and “deliverance.” “He agonizes his way toward every decision,” said jane fonda, his co-star in “coming home.” “What his next movie should be. Whether to go out to lunch. He’s a good, tortured person.” voight’s agony led him to pass on “love story” despite multiple entreaties from producers and an offer of a percentage of the profits that would have earned him $6 million in 1970 dollars. Fifty-five years later, voight insists he didn’t make a mistake. “‘Love story’ wouldn’t have been good with me in it,” voight says. “I would have overly complicated it.” he spent years trying to center his chaotic and chattering life by devouring books on mysticism and eastern philosophy. He disappeared from the public eye for most of the 1980s. Mann told me voight was a regular at duke’s in malibu during that era, sitting in the corner, his face obscured by long hair. “I didn’t go up to him,” remembers mann. “I was a little scared of him.” “i was too screwed up to act,” says voight. finally, in his 40s, he had a spiritual awakening. He was crying on the floor of his home and asked god why everything seemed so hard. God gave him an unexpected answer: it’s supposed to be hard. the work came back after that. He got another oscar nomination for 1985’s “runaway train” and appeared in “the rainmaker,” his first work with coppola. He also helped tom cruise relaunch the “mission: impossible” franchise. there was some accompanying voight weirdness. He unsuccessfully sued an ex-business partner, laura pels, in 1994 after claiming she backed out of investing in his films because he wouldn’t sleep with her. There was another series of lawsuits involving two new zealand producers over a failed movie project that ended with no assignment of blame but much bad blood. voight’s spiritual awakening is the one aspect of his life that the actor is reluctant to talk about in detail. “I get too emotional,” voight says. He then tells me where i can learn more about it. “I did an interview with tucker carlson,” he says. “It’s all there.” jon voight remembers when he first met donald trump. “It was at a party in new york in the 1990s,” he says. “He came all the way across the room to tell me how much he loved one of my films. I was so impressed.” voight has returned the favor exponentially; he compares trump to lincoln and richard the lionheart and declares his enemies to be less than human. But voight wasn’t always like this; back in the ’60s, he considered himself a typical hollywood lefty. But an experience toward the end of the vietnam war changed that. in the early 1970s, he was sitting next to a soldier on a flight. The man was on his way home from vietnam. “He was shaking, clearly had ptsd,” voight says. “I knew when he got off the flight he’d be spit on and called a baby killer.” voight is repeating a long-dismissed myth that soldiers returning from vietnam were spat on and called murderers by their fellow americans, but the viewpoint led him to the role of luke martin, a paraplegic vietnam vet in “coming home.” voight’s takeaway from “coming home” wasn’t that vietnam was a tragic mistake that cost thousands of american boys their lives in a pointless war. No, voight thinks we should have stuck it out. He measures a tiny distance between his thumb and forefinger and says, “we were this close to winning. Then there were the protests and the riots.” most military historians disagree with voight’s analysis. The idea that our country would not have suffered an ignominious defeat if only the military had been given endless resources and not been stabbed in the back is as old as history. Still, it set voight on his political path. While he campaigned for george w. Bush and mitt romney, it was the rise of barack obama that infuriated him. in a fox news appearance in 2014, voight said, “five years ago, i stated that obama would take the country apart piece by piece — that he would cause a civil war in this country. In hindsight, we can see how many things have come to pass.” voight has been rhetorically at trump’s side since the former president announced his first candidacy in 2015. He still believes obama is pulling joe biden’s strings and calls the current president a mastermind of the largest political crime syndicate in american history. Trump’s shortcomings are dismissed as nothing more than propaganda coming from democratic party political conspirators. I ask him if he seriously thinks trump is the equal of abraham lincoln in the pantheon of american presidents, as he has repeatedly stated. “Absolutely,” he says. “Who else has faced greater challenges and enemies since lincoln?” i immediately think of fdr but say nothing. it speaks to voight’s talents that his inflammatory rhetoric has not stifled a late-career renaissance, particularly voight’s seven seasons on “ray donovan,” where he added to his fractured-masculinity arsenal with his role as donovan’s manipulative ex-con dad, mickey. Voight says the key is that he never talks politics at work, and that’s why he took great offense when his “ray donovan” co-star eddie marsan sent this tweet with a picture of him and voight on the set of the show: “hey america, i know this is the most important election ever & the survival of your democratic institutions and the soul of america is at stake but … can we just take it back to me for a second. Please vote for joe biden, i can’t spend another 4 years listening to this bullsh*t.” this did not please voight. His voice rises when i remind him of the tweet: “if he is saying i brought up trump on set, that is a lie.” but there have been some benefits. A fan tweeted praise of both voight’s acting and his patriotism in 2019: “academy award winning actor (and great guy!) @Jonvoight is fantastic in the role of mickey donovan in the big television hit, ray donovan. From midnight cowboy to deliverance to the champ (one of the best ever boxing movies), & many others, jon delivers big. Also, loves the usa!” the fan was donald trump. The same year, trump gave voight the national medal of arts and the national humanities medal. I ask voight if he’s proud of the recognition. He waves me off. “I don’t care about all that stuff. I only have a few years left, and i want to spend them trying to save our american way of life.” He gives an actor’s pause. “It’s slipping away forever.” after the fourth of july holiday, i get a message from voight asking if we could meet for a quick lunch at the beverly glen deli before he leaves to shoot a film in bulgaria. The request seems odd: we had already said a last goodbye at his house. I wonder what’s left to say and suspect he’s going to try to take back the words he said about jolie’s views on gaza. the exact opposite occurs. It’s a week after joe biden’s incoherent debate performance, and voight is feeling vindicated. “It’s a disgrace, all the drugs and steroids they’ve been shooting him up with,” he says. He struggles to open the pull tab on a can of root beer. I’m about to reach over and help when he grimaces with concentration and the pop-top relents. i’ve asked voight on multiple occasions if i could talk with his son, jamie, with whom he reconciled a few years ago. I asked first after voight proudly told me jamie was going to direct him in a film this summer. Voight delayed the meeting with jamie for months, and i gave up the pursuit. But a few minutes into our lunch, jamie, in his 50s, arrives at the deli. He is well moisturized and dressed all in white, including a skull cap. He launches into a monologue about a number of topics — the film, his involvement in a k-pop project, his work with troubled children, why linus is his favorite peanuts character and how “star wars” changed his life. His father beams. I suspect the movie will never happen. jamie steps out for a moment. I steel myself for voight sweet-talking me in an attempt to get me to soften his statements about his daughter. But instead he starts another lecture about jolie’s israel information deficit. “It comes from ignorance, like everything else,” voight says. “It’s like, why are these kids in the universities siding with hamas, right? It’s because of ignorance. They don’t know the story.” i realize that this is the key to being jon voight. He can sell coppola’s crassus because he believes it. He can convince me of his spiritual conversion because he believed that too. But that self-belief — a requirement of any actor, but stronger in voight than in anyone else i’ve interviewed — has toxic consequences: a true believer cannot comprehend that someone, much less his own flesh and blood, might hold a different view. i ask him, not for the first time, if he thinks that instead of attacking jolie on instagram, he might just pick up the phone. He shakes his head. “It’s hard for me to talk to her about this,” he says with a resigned look. “She doesn’t really want to share this kind of stuff, because she’s of another mind about it.” instead, he filibusters about the myth of the palestinian homeland, referencing the fall of the ottoman empire and the british mandate over the holy land from 1920 to 1948. It’s the same talk he gave me a few weeks ago, almost verbatim. After about 10 minutes, i gently tell him he explained all of this to me before. He looks confused. “Are you sure?” at this moment, voight does not look like a movie star or a soldier for trump. He just looks lost and agitated, not unlike biden on the night of his debate. five days later, donald trump survives an assassination attempt in butler, pa. Voight and i connect after a couple of missed calls. He sees trump’s survival as a sign and speaks of it in messianic terms. “There’s a prophet who predicted there was going to be an attempt on his life,” says voight. “He was going to go to his knees, and during the moment he was on his knees, he was going to connect with god.” he then mentions the evil that’s spreading across the world via satanists like soros. He says we can too easily access it on our smartphones. i suggest that both sides need to turn down the heat, and that maybe he could take a step back from claiming the biden administration is populated by evildoers. the line goes quiet for a moment. “Well, that’s your opinion,” voight says. “I’m very careful about what i say. But when i see the attacks on this man, i know they’re coming from a hateful, evil place.” he transitions quickly to jolie being brainwashed by antisemitic propagandists and then a familiar stalking horse, soros. “what do you say about soros?” Voight says. “That he seems normal when you talk about him? No. He bought out das, he bought out judges, he bought out politicians. You have to have strength. You have to be righteous.” and that’s when i give up. For all the lovely talk voight and i had about paintings, poetry and old hollywood over deli sandwiches and root beers, it is now clear that he is also coming from a hateful place. He natters on about marxists and other ghosts, but i tune him out. I tell him i must go, but he wants to end on a hopeful note. “i’ve been the most outspoken supporter of donald trump in hollywood,” he says with pride. “I’ve been saying he’s the answer, the only answer.” He slips into the third person for the first time in all our conversations. “Now, after this, maybe they will look at jon voight in a different way. If donald trump is being revealed in this way, maybe they will see a supporter like me in a different light.” i wish him a good night. There is nothing left to say.
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    Otto Octavius (Earth-616)
    Posted on Wednesday, July 24 @ 00:00:17 PDT (0 reads)
    College Guide | | no edit summary | | (does that count? He was in peters body at the time) |line 10:||line 10:| | | | impersonations = [[peter benjamin parker]],{{r|amazing spider-man vol 1 697}} [[the living brain]],{{r|amazing spider-man vol 4 1}} [[spider-man]]{{r|amazing spider-man vol 1 697}} | | | impersonations = [[peter benjamin parker]],{{r|amazing spider-man vol 1 697}} [[the living brain]],{{r|amazing spider-man vol 4 1}} [[spider-man]]{{r|amazing spider-man vol 1 697}} | | | aliases = [[doctor]],{{r|superior spider-man vol 1 32}} dr. Elliot tolliver,{{r|amazing spider-man vol 1 800}} [[friendly neighborhood spider-man]],{{r|superior spider-man team-up vol 1 7}} octopus man,{{r|amazing spider-man vol 6 17}} prisoner vol 1 4756689,{{r|amazing spider-man annual vol 1 1}} [[superior venom]],{{r|superior spider-man vol 1 23}} [[webslinger|web-slinger]]{{r|avengers now! Vol 1 1}} | | | aliases = [[doctor]],{{r|superior spider-man vol 1 32}} dr. Elliot tolliver,{{r|amazing spider-man vol 1 800}} [[friendly neighborhood spider-man]],{{r|superior spider-man team-up vol 1 7}} octopus man,{{r|amazing spider-man vol 6 17}} prisoner vol 1 4756689,{{r|amazing spider-man annual vol 1 1}} [[superior venom]],{{r|superior spider-man vol 1 23}} [[webslinger|web-slinger]]{{r|avengers now! Vol 1 1}} |?|| | | hostof = [[venom (symbiote) (earth-616)|venom symbiote]]{{r|superior spider-man vol 1 23}} | | | identity = public | | | identity = public | | | affiliation = {{m|sinister six}}{{r|amazing spider-man vol 6 45}} (founder/leader) {{r|amazing spider-man annual vol 1 1}};
    formerly
    | | | affiliation = {{m|sinister six}}{{r|amazing spider-man vol 6 45}} (founder/leader) {{r|amazing spider-man annual vol 1 1}};
    formerly
    |line 26:||line 25:| | | [[peter parker (new u duplicate) (earth-616)|doctor octopus 2.0]] (clone, former body, deceased);
    | | [[peter parker (new u duplicate) (earth-616)|doctor octopus 2.0]] (clone, former body, deceased);
    | | [[otto octavius (clones) (earth-616)|ottos octavius]] (clones, deceased);
    | | [[otto octavius (clones) (earth-616)|ottos octavius]] (clones, deceased);
    |?|| | [[otto octavius (earth-5069) |+|| | [[otto octavius (earth-5069)]] (creation/partial clone);
    | | [[gwendolyn stacy (gwen ock) (earth-65)|gwen ock (gwen stacy)]] (partial clone){{r|spider-gwen: shadow clones vol 1 1}} | | [[gwendolyn stacy (gwen ock) (earth-65)|gwen ock (gwen stacy)]] (partial clone){{r|spider-gwen: shadow clones vol 1 1}} | | | maritalstatus = single | | | maritalstatus = single latest revision as of 05:13, 24 july 2024 then i shall endeavor to exceed your expectations. Let others settle for greatness, [max](/wiki/max_modell_(earth-616)). I always strive to be [superior](/wiki/superior_spider-man). - —dr. Octavius as elliot tolliver [[src]](/wiki/amazing_spider-man_vol_1_800) - —dr. Octavius as elliot tolliver dr. Otto octavius is a highly intelligent and prideful scientist, better known as the criminal mastermind doctor octopus. During an atomic research project, octavius body was fused to four mechanical, tentacle-like arms, also causing him severe brain damage that turned him into a criminal. He clashed with [spider-man](/wiki/peter_parker_(earth-616)) and went to become one of his greatest enemies. [[26]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_3-26) after multiple battles, ottos body started to fail and decay itself. [[27]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_600-27) in one last attempt to survive, otto swapped brains with his nemesis, leaving spider-man to die in his fragile body. [[28]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_698-28) however, residual memories caused otto to understand the responsibility of being a hero and strove to become the superior spider-man, a better crime-fighter than his nemesis ever was. [[29]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_700-29) [[30]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_1-30) despite his best efforts, ottos ruthless method of justice was futile in stopping the return of [green goblin](/wiki/norman_osborn_(earth-616)), forcing otto to cede control of his body back to peter parker, understanding him to be the one worthy of being called spider-man. [[31]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_30-31) a digital backup of ottos mind survived and housed himself in the robotic body of the living brain. [[25]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_4_18-25) using the cloning technology of the new [jackal](/wiki/benjamin_reilly_(earth-616)) at his disposal, otto transferred his digital mind to a new body made from his and spider-mans genes, [[32]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_4_24-32) assuming the alias of the superior octopus while working with [hydra](/wiki/hydra_(earth-616)). [[33]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_4_29-33) creating the identity of elliot tolliver, otto moved to [san francisco](/wiki/san_francisco), where he resumed his activities as the superior spider-man. [[34]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_2_1-34) despite all the good he had done, otto was forced to make a deal with [mephisto](/wiki/mephisto_(earth-616)) to return to his doctor octopus body and mind to defeat another criminal mastermind. [[35]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_2_12-35) however otto slowly started to spiral into depression over the loss of information that helped him find what he called the great equation, a culmination of all his lifes work. Otto grew miserable and redirected this frustration towards the now-reformed norman osborn for being responsible for dismantling the heroic life he made during ottos first time as the superior spider-man and possibly for his alternate reality counterpart putting otto in a position where he had to once again relinquish his desire to be a hero and become his original villainous self. Realizing that the only way for him to be at peace is to regain his lost memories, otto sets out to once again become the superior spider-man. He eventually begins to regain all of his past memories when he inadvertently frees supernova, his former spider-ling and lab assistant that discovered the final solution to the equation needed to create a miniature star, and performed the experiment granting her solar energy abilities. Not realizing that otto was spider-man at the time, she targets the original and while otto watches from afar he rediscovers spider-mans secret identity causing him to remember everything. After briefly teaming up with spider-man against supernova to save anna-maria marconi, otto gains a hive-mind using psychic spiders with his mind patterns imprinted on them. He plans on expanding this globally using supernova as a living battery but upon seeing anna also supposedly assimilated into the hive otto uses his device to destroy the hive mind, freeing everyone. However it causes otto to lose his memories yet again, not even remembering his time as superior spider-man. quick answers what event caused dr. Otto octavius to become doctor octopus? how did doctor octopus become one of spider-mans greatest enemies? what are the capabilities of doctor octopus mechanical arms? how did otto octavius personality change after his accident? what was otto octavius researching when his accident occurred? history early life born in [schenectady](/wiki/schenectady), [new york](/wiki/new_york_(state)), to a lower-class family, only child otto octavius was raised by his overbearing [mother](/wiki/mary_lavinia_octavius_(earth-616)) and his abusive [father](/wiki/torbert_octavius_(earth-616)). During his youth, otto would often receive beatings from his father at home, or from bullies at school. Otto was devoid of friends, but excelled academically. [[36]](#cite_note-spider-man/doctor_octopus_year_one_vol_1_1-36) after high school, otto was accepted into [m.I.T. (Massachusetts institute of technology)](/wiki/massachusetts_institute_of_technology) for university. During ottos first year of school, his father torbert died in a construction accident, a fact for which otto was very grateful. Otto continued a very close relationship living with his mother, but his mother continued to become more over-attached, and was jealous that otto spent so much of his time at school. [[36]](#cite_note-spider-man/doctor_octopus_year_one_vol_1_1-36) after graduating m.I.T., Otto was hired by the [u.S. Atomic research center](/wiki/atomic_research_center) to research radioactivity, a study he had already begun in his college career. [[36]](#cite_note-spider-man/doctor_octopus_year_one_vol_1_1-36) to help manipulate radioactive substances from a safe distance, otto constructed a [chest harness](/wiki/doctor_octopus%27_tentacles) that could control four mechanical, tentacle-like arms - via neural impulses. This earned him the nickname doctor octopus. At work, he had fallen in love with a fellow researcher, [mary anders](/wiki/mary_alice_anders_(earth-616)), and the began a romantic relationship. When ottos mother, whom he lived with, found out about his relationship, she accused otto of turning his back on her and forced him to traumatically end the relationship. When otto discovered his mother hypocritically dating behind his back, he blew up in rage at her. During his confrontation with his mother she died of a heart attack, leaving otto with bitterness at being the cause of his mothers death. [[37]](#cite_note-spider-man_unlimited_vol_1_18-37) [[38]](#cite_note-spider-man/doctor_octopus_year_one_vol_1_2-3-38) becoming doctor octopus consumed with guilt, otto couldnt fully focus during work, and volatile liquids exploded - bombarding the scientist with radiation. The substances left him capable of mentally controlling the arms, but the accident also caused irreversible brain damage - transforming the respected scientist into a megalomaniacal superhuman criminal. [[26]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_3-26) [[39]](#cite_note-spider-man/doctor_octopus_year_one_vol_1_4-39) waking in a hospital, otto knew this newfound strength - combined with his awesome intellect - could render him supremely powerful. Holding the medical staff hostage, otto forced them to gather lab equipment for him to continue his work. But [spider-man](/wiki/peter_parker_(earth-616)) showed up. Doctor octopus easily defeated spider-man. Doc ock then took control of a leading nuclear research facility and again squared off with the wall-crawler, who this time defeated him with one punch to the jaw. [[26]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_3-26) [[40]](#cite_note-spider-man/doctor_octopus_year_one_vol_1_5-40) after serving time, doc ock attempted to raise funds by springing gangster [blackie gaxton](/wiki/blackie_gaxton_(earth-616)) from a [philadelphia](/wiki/philadelphia_(pennsylvania)) prison - assisted by gaxtons lawyer, [bennett brant](/wiki/bennett_brant_(earth-616)). Spider-man foiled the scheme but could not save bennett from being shot in front of his sister, [betty brant](/wiki/elizabeth_brant_(earth-616)). After escaping from spider-man during a scuffle on a getaway boat meant for gaxton, octopus travelled throughout the country, committing some of the most spectacular crimes in an attempt to bring spider-man to confront him. When that failed, octopus returned to [new york](/wiki/new_york_city), where he hoped to find spider-man. [[41]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_11-41) after kidnapping betty brant, whom octopus knew spider-man had risked his life saving before, he fought spider-man on [coney island](/wiki/coney_island), who was suffering from a severe virus attack, and easily defeated and unmasked him as peter parker. Falsely realizing that the weak peter parker could not be spider-man, octopus left and went on a rampage, releasing zoo animals and finally confronting the real spider-man, and was defeated when he was trapped in a burning building. [[42]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_12-42) after being imprisoned yet again, a team of specialists found a way to remove his harness. Now believed by the prison to be normal again and without power, they placed his tentacles in another part of the facility. It was at this time that octopus showed that he had mental control over his arms, even when separated from him over short distances. Using this to his advantage, he summoned his tentacles to return to him and escaped from prison. [[17]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_annual_vol_1_1-17) forming the sinister six otto then deduced that to defeat spider-man, he could not do it alone. He decided to bring together a team of villains to destroy spider-man, and thus assembled the first [sinister six](/wiki/sinister_six_(earth-616)) to combat spider-man. He plotted to kidnap betty brant again and make her their hostage. However, betty was visiting with [may parker](/wiki/maybelle_parker_(earth-616)) at the time, who was also captured and taken hostage. Doctor octopus treated may so kindly, though, that she remained blissfully unaware she had been kidnapped by the charming villain. [[17]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_annual_vol_1_1-17) [[43]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_18-43) master planner following spider-mans defeat of the sinister six, octopus assembled another group of costumed underlings and established an undersea base. Calling himself the master planner, he embarked on a series of thefts of experimental substances - seeking to further expand his mastery of the atomic sciences. His goal: to develop a radiation ray with which he could rule the world. But his plan was fated to entwine with spider-mans: when may fell sick, peter provided her with a blood transfusion - not realizing the radioactivity in his plasma would kill her. [[44]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_31-44) the only substance capable of saving her was the experimental [iso-36](/wiki/iso-36). Peter managed to obtain enough money to fund the operation, but the master planners forces hijacked the shipment for their own deadly research. Spider-man tracked down the master planner to his underwater hideout and confronted his foe, revealed to be doc ock. After the base was destroyed, doctor octopus escaped once more. Spider-man recovered the iso-36 and saved aunt mays life with the aid of dr. Curt connors (the [lizard](/wiki/curtis_connors_(earth-616))). [[3]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_32-3) doctor octopus next scheme involved the theft of the [nullifier](/wiki/nullifier), a projector that could disable any device. After two failed attempts, otto finally succeeded on his third. Turning the nullifier against spider-man, he caused the wall-crawler to lose his memory and told him that they were allies. He then enlisted spider-mans help to steal the remaining components for the device. [[45]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_53-45) though spider-man had not regained his memory, his instinctive spider-sense persuaded him not to trust doc ock, and otto was defeated once more. [[46]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_54-46) [[47]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_55-47) [[48]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_56-48) marriage now imprisoned, with his arms confiscated, otto again demonstrated that the range of his psionic control over the tentacles had increased to a far greater distance than previously believed. [[49]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_88-49) the arms freed him from captivity; after hijacking a plane and exploding it, doc ock, believed to be dead, decided to rampage through the city, bringing attention to himself from spider-man. [[50]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_89-50) in the ensuing battle between the two, doc ock accidentally knocked over a chimney, which killed [george stacy](/wiki/george_stacy_(earth-616)) (the father of [gwen stacy](/wiki/gwendolyne_stacy_(earth-616)), the first true love of spider-man), who was preventing a child from being crushed by the chimney. [[51]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_90-51) free again, doc ock seized upon the [kingpin](/wiki/wilson_fisk_(earth-616))s absence to gather his forces and launch an all-out gang war against [hammerhead](/wiki/hammerhead_(joseph)_(earth-616))s thugs. [[52]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_114-52) but spider-mans involvement quickly resulted in doc ocks return to prison. [[53]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_115-53) while incarcerated, doctor octopus learned may parker had inherited a small canadian island containing a commercial nuclear reactor. On his release, he set out to woo and marry may. But hammerhead interrupted the wedding, and the ensuing chase and brawl led to the destruction of the reactor. [[54]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_131-54) octopus survived the explosion and ended up living as a derelict in the [bowery](/wiki/bowery), being haunted by the ghost of hammerhead. [[55]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_152-55) [[56]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_154-56) [[57]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_156-57) he sought out may parker who took him back in even though he had left her stranded at the altar, leading him to kidnap her when he was attacked by hammerhead. [[58]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_157-58) he constructed a device to destroy the host, which instead brought hammerhead back to life, [[59]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_158-59) who kidnapped aunt may. Octopus and spider-man briefly teamed up to rescue her. [[60]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_159-60) doc later tried to hijack an atomic powered submarine. [[61]](#cite_note-peter_parker,_the_spectacular_spider-man_annual_vol_1_1-61) he also attempted to poison new york with printers ink, and fought the [punisher](/wiki/francis_castle_(earth-616)) and spider-man. [[62]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_annual_vol_1_15-62) doc next battled the [owl](/wiki/leland_owlsley_(earth-616)) and his gang. [[63]](#cite_note-peter_parker,_the_spectacular_spider-man_vol_1_73-63) [[64]](#cite_note-peter_parker,_the_spectacular_spider-man_vol_1_74-76-64) he successfully deactivated a nuclear reactor before a meltdown. [[65]](#cite_note-peter_parker,_the_spectacular_spider-man_vol_1_124-65) [mr. Fantastic](/wiki/reed_richards_(earth-616)) diagnosed doc ock as suffering from multiple personality disorder. [[66]](#cite_note-fantastic_four_vol_1_267-66) secret wars doc was taken to the [beyonder](/wiki/beyonder_(earth-616))s [battleworld](/wiki/battleworld_(beyonder)), where he fought a group of heroes and plotted against [doctor doom](/wiki/victor_von_doom_(earth-616)) for leadership of the group of villains. He was able to defeat the [x-men](/wiki/x-men_(earth-616)) until [magneto](/wiki/max_eisenhardt_(earth-616)) came to their aid. [[67]](#cite_note-marvel_super_heroes_secret_wars_vol_1_1-67) [[68]](#cite_note-marvel_super_heroes_secret_wars_vol_1_2-12-68) fear of spider-man when doc ock went to war with the owl, [[69]](#cite_note-peter_parker,_the_spectacular_spider-man_vol_1_75-69) spider-man and the [black cat](/wiki/felicia_hardy_(earth-616)) attempted to intervene. Devastated that the confrontation had left the black cat near death, [[70]](#cite_note-peter_parker,_the_spectacular_spider-man_vol_1_76-70) a cold-hearted peter said farewell to his friends before entering what he believed to be his final showdown with doctor octopus. Spider-mans victory was remorseless, and doc ock developed a morbid fear of his arachnid foe. [[71]](#cite_note-peter_parker,_the_spectacular_spider-man_vol_1_79-71) imprisoned in a mental institution, otto struggled with his overwhelming phobia of spider-man. Knowing he could not face his foe directly, ocks next plan involved the use of biological weapons to kill the entire population of new york. Spider-man was forced to fake a humiliating defeat lest the city be destroyed, restoring ottos self-confidence. [[72]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_296-72) [[73]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_297-73) savior of spider-man doctor octopus recruits [electro](/wiki/maxwell_dillon_(earth-616)) and [sandman](/wiki/william_baker_(earth-616)) for the new sinister six. [[74]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_334-74) his next recruits were [hobgoblin](/wiki/jason_macendale_jr._(earth-616)) and [mysterio](/wiki/quentin_beck_(earth-616)). [[75]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_335-75) his final recruit was the [vulture](/wiki/adrian_toomes_(earth-616)). [[76]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_336-76) doc ock with his new sinister six planned to take over the world and destroy spider-man. [[77]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_337-77) after trying to gas spider-man, [[78]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_338-78) spider-man defeated the villains. [[79]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_339-79) learning his once-to-be-fiancée mary alice was dying from aids, otto began a desperate search for a cure - stealing research materials to do so. His attempts failed, mary alice died, and the villain meekly surrendered to spider-man. [[80]](#cite_note-spider-man_unlimited_vol_1_3-80) a world-weary otto nonetheless escaped from prison. At the time, spider-man was dying from a chemical virus. Hoping to one day kill the hero himself, doc ock captured and unmasked his foe. Analyzing the virus, otto offered him a cure. Daring to trust his foe, peter accepted the mixture and was healed. [[81]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_397-81) death and resurrection doctor octopus was murdered by the insane peter parker clone named [kaine](/wiki/kaine_parker_(earth-616)). [[23]](#cite_note-spectacular_spider-man_vol_1_221-23) octavius student [carolyn trainer](/wiki/carolyn_trainer_(earth-616)) took over as doctor octopus ii, until the original was resurrected by a branch of the mystical ninja cult known as the [hand](/wiki/hand_(earth-616)). Although octavius had discovered peter parkers dual identity shortly prior to his death while curing parker of a lethal virus created by the vulture, he lost all knowledge of it upon his resurrection. The reason for this was the memories he gained came from a computer chip provided by his associate carolyn trainer with his recorded memories. That recent memory had not been recorded at the time of his death (it is uncertain whether or not trainer had some ulterior motive for remodeling octavius mind). [[82]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_426-428-82) octavius attempted to create his own personal assassin in the form of a villainous mutated entity he dubbed [spider-woman](/wiki/charlotte_witter_(earth-616)) and was involved in a plot involving using prosthetic limbs as mind-control devices, to create an army of minions. He also had to deal with another usurper, in the form of an arrogant-yet-brilliant scientist named [carlyle](/wiki/luke_carlyle_(earth-616)), who created his own version of octavius harness and who tried to kill octavius, whose power he envied. [[83]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_2_43-45-83) octavius resurfaced in the attempt to kidnap a palestinian ambassador, in hopes of causing chaos for reasons unknown. His plot was thwarted by spider-man and his temporary sidekick the [kiwi kid](/wiki/john_anderson_(earth-616)). [[84]](#cite_note-spectacular_spider-man_vol_2_6-10-84) octavius was then taken into [rykers island](/wiki/ryker%27s_island) and was drugged and brainwashed to take down the [green goblin](/wiki/norman_osborn_(earth-616)). He interrupted a battle between spider-man and the green goblin on the [brooklyn bridge](/wiki/brooklyn_bridge), and the two villains were struck by lightning and fell into the river below. Octopus was dragged out days later with no memories of the event. [[85]](#cite_note-marvel_knights_spider-man_vol_1_12-85) civil war octavius unsuccessfully tries to form and lead another version of the sinister six, because [captain america](/wiki/steven_rogers_(earth-616))s [secret avengers](/wiki/secret_avengers_(civil_war)_(earth-616)) managed to defeat the villainous group, although ock himself eludes authorities. Doctor octopus is later seen viewing a telecast of peter parker revealing himself to be spider-man. Ock then goes rampaging throughout the city, in utter disbelief that not only was he beaten numerous times by a teenager, but of the lost opportunity he had when he unmasked parker. He is again defeated by spider-man, who confronts doctor octopus unmasked, after two of peters students distract octavius. He is then sent to [baron zemo](/wiki/helmut_zemo_(earth-616))s super villain detention facility and is one of the ex-super villains trying to hunt down the renegade super heroes. Ock abandons the team when he realizes being a part of the [thunderbolts](/wiki/thunderbolts_(earth-616)) is pointless. However, he was apprehended by [s.H.I.E.L.D.](/Wiki/strategic_homeland_intervention,_enforcement_and_logistics_division_(earth-616)) and placed into custody. [[86]](#cite_note-thunderbolts_vol_1_104-109-86) brand new day after escaping, doctor octopus learned that after all his battles and injuries suffered, his body was failing, giving him just some months to live. He modified himself to be mentally connected to his own army of [octobots](/wiki/octobot), and adding four more arms to his harness. His goal then became to use his abilities to take over the utilities of new york city, and turn it into a paradise under his control, though his minds subconscious also targeted spider-man, and disrupted the wedding plans of his ex, aunt may. Spider-man and the [human torch](/wiki/jonathan_storm_(earth-616)) eventually track down his base, save the captive [jay jameson](/wiki/john_jonah_jameson,_sr._(earth-616)) (mays fiancee), [carlie cooper](/wiki/carlie_cooper_(earth-616)), and [norah winters](/wiki/norah_winters_(earth-616)), and finally destroy doctor octopus hold over the city. Doctor octopus is then able to escape (still holding power over his mini-bots) and vows a terrible revenge. [[27]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_600-27) origin of the species doctor octopus later assembles a super villain team consisting of [chameleon](/wiki/dmitri_smerdyakov_(earth-616)), [diablo](/wiki/esteban_coraz%c3%b3n_de_ablo_(earth-616)), electro, [freak](/wiki/freak_(vagrant)_(earth-616)), hammerhead, [hippo](/wiki/consultant_(earth-616)), lizard, [mister negative](/wiki/mister_negative_(earth-616)), [morbius, the living vampire](/wiki/michael_morbius_(earth-616)), mysterio, [overdrive](/wiki/james_beverley_(earth-616)), [rhino](/wiki/aleksei_sytsevich_(earth-616)), sandman, [shocker](/wiki/herman_schultz_(earth-616)), [spot](/wiki/johnathon_ohnn_(earth-616)), [tombstone](/wiki/alonzo_lincoln_(earth-616)), [vermin](/wiki/edward_whelan_(earth-616)), and [vulture iv](/wiki/james_natale_(earth-616)). He tells them to secure specific items and promised they will receive a reward. First, he targets [menace](/wiki/lily_hollister_(earth-616))s [newborn infant](/wiki/stanley_osborn_(earth-616)) despite spider-mans interference as it has pure [goblin serum](/wiki/goblin_formula) in its veins which doctor octopus thinks that it would help cure his crippling illness. after spider-man grabs the infant from doctor octopus, he sends the villains after spider-man. Doctor octopus talks with chameleon stating that he had placed an octo-tracker on spider-man in order to track him down. After chameleon steals the baby from spider-man, doctor octopus talks with the chameleon saying that the baby is the first of a new species. Because the serums inside norman osborn and lily hollister co-mingled when they reproduced, the baby is beyond octopus procurement. He refers to it as sui generis and plans on using the new species dna to repair his body. when spider-man caught chameleon, he mentioned that the baby is still alive, and that the lizard stole it from him before it can be handed over to doctor octopus. Doctor octopus was looking for the lizard when spider-man arrived. Spider-man told doctor octopus that they will get the baby back from the lizard and then fight over who will get it. Spider-man even mentioned to doctor octopus that the lizard is now in a different appearance. When doctor octopus attacks spider-man, the lizard attacks spider-man. Spider-man threatens to attack the lizard with the lizard serum if he does not give him the baby. Lizard agrees and reveals that he got a blood sample from the baby and found out that norman osborn is not the father. The lizard then gives the baby to spider-man saying that if osborn is not the father, then the baby is of no use to him. Doctor octopus then attacks the lizard while spider-man escapes with the baby. spider-man, the [avengers](/wiki/avengers_(earth-616)), and the [fantastic four](/wiki/fantastic_four_(earth-616)) later fight doctor octopus and his macro-octobot army. During that time, he had assembled another version of the sinister six consisting of chameleon (who was posing as steve rogers), electro, mysterio, rhino, and sandman in a plot to slip the macro-octobot army into a military base and detonate them. This was prevented by spider-man, the avengers, and the fantastic four. After his defeat, doctor octopus acknowledges spider-mans intellect and no longer considers him as the foolish child he had believed him to be. [[87]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_642-647-87) when [alistaire smythe](/wiki/alistaire_smythe_(earth-616)) was having [scorpion](/wiki/macdonald_gargan_(earth-616)), [fly-girl](/wiki/paula_crane_(earth-616)) and some cyborgs attack the launch base where [john jameson](/wiki/john_jonah_jameson_iii_(earth-616)) was, doctor octopus was observing the occurrences with a remote octobot and uses the machine to assist the astronauts on board as part of his heretofore unknown plans. [[88]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_653-88) ends of the earth as his final master plan, otto octavius set in motion a set of events, starting with the announcement to offer the world a chance to stop global warming. [[89]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_682-89) next doctor octopus and his sinister six planned the theft of the zero cannon, (a powerful weapon which changes earths gravity field to send specific objects to space), from the group of genius super villains called [intelligencia](/wiki/intelligencia_(earth-616)). Otto and his group succeeded with intelligencia down and the cannon stolen. [[90]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_676-90) later, while disguised as vice-president of america, [al gore](/wiki/albert_gore,_jr._(earth-616)), chameleon tried to accelerate the decision of worlds leaders about ottos earlier request, but was uncovered by spider-man, who interrupted the scene along with the avengers. When the chameleon was freed, he arrived in the mediterranean for a meeting with the rest of the team. The avengers followed them and fought the sinister six, but they were all defeated by the villains, save for electro, who was sent to space by [thor](/wiki/thor_odinson_(earth-616)). [[91]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_683-91) using an explosion as a distraction, [silver sable](/wiki/silvija_sablinova_(earth-616)) saved spider-man and [black widow](/wiki/natalia_romanova_(earth-616)). When they tried to get to one of octavius manufacturing plants of satellites, they defeated sandman, but octavius asked for help to all nations, due his position in the matter, to capture spider-man. [[92]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_684-92) while spider-man and his allies continue to disarm doc ocks bases, defeating rhino in the process, they are attacked by s.H.I.E.L.D. Forces before they can capture him and are forced to flee. Octavius asked for help of other super villains to watch over his facilities over the world, but even after spider-man tracks down the final one, octavius finally reveals he was going to destroy the world anyways, rather than save it. He activated his octavian lens, burning half of the world, including silver sables country, [symkaria](/wiki/symkaria). But this is revealed to be a trick made by mysterio (only burning a small portion of a city in symkaria), while chameleon uses a robot to fight spider-man, after they are defeated, mysterio is convinced by spider-man to help him to catch doctor octopus in his base in [guatemala](/wiki/guatemala), but octavius used the mind-controlled avengers as his new sinister six. [[93]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_686-93) spider-man, sable and widow managed to defeat the avengers, then he and sable headed to octavius underwater base. They are faced by rhino while the base starts to flood, he trapped sable and left spider-man with two choices, to continue to fight him in order to save sable from drowning (but octavius would activate the lenses) or let him drown himself and sable but stop octopus. After leaving sable to her death at her request, spidey faced the doctor in battle, and managed to destroy octavius arms and equipment before taking his foe away for medical assistance. [[94]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_687-94) dying wish using a brain-swapping octobot, otto octavius transplanted his mind into the body of his nemesis spider-man. He retained all of peters memories, and thus was able to fool all of peters family and friends, from [mary jane watson](/wiki/mary_jane_watson_(earth-616)) and aunt may to the avengers. Peters mind, meanwhile, was placed into octavius dying body. [[28]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_698-28) after realizing peter, in doc ocks body, escaped the [raft](/wiki/raft), otto decided to keep every person peter knew in a safe room in the [stark tower](/wiki/stark_tower_(columbus_circle,_rebuilt)) and waited for doctor octopus alone there, by distracting the other avengers with giant octobots around the globe, knowing that peter would seek for help from [tony stark](/wiki/anthony_stark_(earth-616)). Both enemies battled until both fell from the tower into the ground, fatally wounding peter (ottos body). When peter tried to use the brain swapping octobot, otto revealed him that he was using a [carbonadium](/wiki/carbonadium) helmet, making his brain totally inaccessible for changing brains. Otto declared his final victory against parker by giving him a lethal punch which caused doctor octopus to give his last breaths. [[95]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_699-95) both then discovered that the octobot managed to connect their minds although it could not swap them, and peter forced otto to relive his most suffering experiences and memories as spider-man, making him realize the responsibility his power came with. Otto told peter he did not want this, but they could not change bodies back. Finally, otto promised peter to continue his legacy both as spider-man and peter parker. Later, he not only realized he could become a better spider-man, but also a better man than who he once was as doctor octopus, to become a superior spider-man to peter parker. [[29]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_700-29) superior spider-man becoming a hero after peter parker died, otto octavius became the new superior spider-man. One of his first actions, after upgrading the spider suit with computerized lenses, was to break into an old base which he had established during his time as doctor octopus. The bases defenses were coded to his original dna, which he no longer possessed due to the body swap, and identified him as an intruder. It was during this battle that he had an epiphany that no matter how brilliant he had believed himself to be, peter parker had always defeated him. Spider-man had always thwarted doc ock. Destroying his creations, otto left the base and fully embraced his new role as spider-man. [[96]](#cite_note-avenging_spider-man_vol_1_151-96) after defeating the new sinister six, [[30]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_1-30) and the returned vulture, with numerous of peters friends noticing changes in peters behavior, octavius decided to become more efficient and utilized thousands of [spider-bots](/wiki/spider-bots) to patrol the city thereby getting to crimes that peter never could in his life. [[97]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_3-97) otto also enrolled at the [empire state university](/wiki/empire_state_university) to get his (peters) doctorate. [[98]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_4-98) as peter he met [anna maria marconi](/wiki/anna_maria_marconi_(earth-616)), who offered to tutor peter. Otto was initially annoyed that she thought he needed assistance but anna not only surprised otto with her intellect, but he also found himself falling in love with her, feelings mirrored by the young woman. during his time as spider-man, otto shattered scorpions jaw, blinded the vulture and killed the mass-murderer [massacre](/wiki/marcus_lyman_(earth-616)). [[99]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_5-99) he also performed numerous involuntary acts, like stopping himself from killing [boomerang](/wiki/frederick_myers_(earth-616)). [[30]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_1-30) when the avengers decided to examine spider-man to find a reason for his change of behavior, [[100]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_7-100) they couldnt find anything. Otto attempted to use a neurolotic scanner to determine the source of several spasms his body was experiencing, that [dr. Elias wirtham](/wiki/elias_wirtham_(earth-616)), aka cardiac also needed. After agreeing to help cardiac in surgery otto could take the scanner with him. Afraid of his own discovery, peter parker almost prevented otto from completing his surgery on a wounded little girl, which would have major consequences. After obtaining the scanner, otto spotted a strange anomaly in his brain, and knew what it was: peter parker. [[101]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_8-101) otto figured out that peters consciousness was alive in his brain, and to his shock, otto could now hear peter inside his mind and decided to put an end to him once and for all. [[101]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_8-101) using a neurolitic scanner otto started a mind-wipe, and finally managed to wipe parker after dealing with him directly, by plunging himself into his brain. In the split-second of surgery, the moment peter was truly selfish, that could give otto the power to convince peter of his own superiority, and finally peter parker was gone, or so, otto thought. [[102]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_9-102) following the expel of parker, octavius helped [mayor jameson](/wiki/john_jonah_jameson_(earth-616)) assist the execution of alistair smythe, [[103]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_11-103) and even though smythe managed to temporarily take over the raft, [[104]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_12-104) otto managed to defeat his allies, vulture, boomerang and scorpion and kill the villain, secretly taking the vulture captive himself. During the conflict, jameson ordered spider-man to execute smythe when he had escaped, using this evidence to blackmail jameson, spider-man forced the mayor to allow the raft to become his new headquarters renamed spider-island 2. With new foundations in which to build his own legacy, octavius formed his own group of minions, the [spiderlings](/wiki/spiderlings_(earth-616)), and created giant spider-mechs, [[105]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_13-105) and being one of ottos newest measures the destruction of [shadowland](/wiki/shadowland). [[106]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_14-106) unknown to him, a new group of organized crime was being built by the hand of a new villain, the goblin king. [[107]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_16-107) [spider-verse](/wiki/spider-verse) during the period where otto went missing in [horizon labs](/wiki/horizon_labs_(earth-616)), he was transported to the [year 2099 in an alternate universe](/wiki/earth-928). Whilst there, he was attacked by the [public eye](/wiki/public_eye_(earth-928)), until he was rescued by [gabe ohara](/wiki/gabriel_o%27hara_(earth-928)). Otto then settled into [miguel ohara](/wiki/miguel_o%27hara_(earth-928))s old flat and programmed an ai in the form of anna maria. He decided to return to the present, and to do so by stealing equipment from [stark-fujikawa](/wiki/stark-fujikawa_(earth-928)) and [alchemax](/wiki/alchemax_(earth-928)) (finding it amusing that stark abided by the law whilst alchemax sent everyone after him). When he attempted travels back in time, he does so but instead traveled to parallel universes, one with a recently deceased spider-man, including one where he found a [spider-man](/wiki/peter_parker_(earth-772)) who was part of the [fantastic four](/wiki/fantastic_five_(earth-772)) (now five), [one](/wiki/peter_parker_(earth-10919)) still reconciling with the [superhero registration act](/wiki/superhuman_registration_act), [one](/wiki/peter_parker_(earth-58163)) living in the house of m reality as a famous mutant and [another spider-man](/wiki/peter_parker_(earth-14132)) in a black iron clad armored-like suit, are all killed by a being with a unique, exotic energy source. Otto realized that someone was killing each universes spider-man and so traveled to different universes. He eventually traveled to a universe with an [indian spider-man](/wiki/paviitr_prabhakar_(earth-50101)) who was under attack by the being killing all the different [spider-men](/wiki/superior_spider-army_(earth-928)), saving him and escaping back to 2099, revealing that otto had already recruited several other spider-men, including [spider-monkey](/wiki/peter_parker_(earth-8101)), [spider-man noir](/wiki/peter_parker_(earth-90214)), [six-armed spider-man](/wiki/peter_parker_(earth-92100)), and [spider-girl](/wiki/ashley_barton_(earth-807128)). He next found and rescued a [spidey](/wiki/peter_parker_(earth-8351)) who left new york city and joined the [wolverine](/wiki/james_howlett_(earth-8351)) in [russia](/wiki/russia) and recruited him to join in fighting back against the being hunting spider-men before they both escaped back to 2099. [[13]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_32-13) over time, otto would gather an army of spider-man across the [multiverse](/wiki/multiverse) against [karn](/wiki/karn_(earth-001)) and other [similar hunters](/wiki/inheritors_(earth-001)). His own team met up with a second spider-men team, which included peter parker from [earth-616](/wiki/earth-616). When informed of the existence of the [spider-totems](/wiki/spider-totems) by [ezekiel sims](/wiki/ezekiel_sims_(earth-4)), otto dismissed the notion of supernatural beings as a backwards superstition. When [daemos](/wiki/daemos_(earth-001)) attacked, drawn to the presence of the [other](/wiki/other_(spider-totem)_(multiverse)) and the [bride](/wiki/cindy_moon_(earth-616)), two powerful spider-totems, otto engaged in combat with daemos and killed him. That turned out to be a clone, and the spiders were forced to split up and flee when daemos returned with reinforcements, killing several members of ottos team. Afterwards, otto declared that they were at war with the inheritors and that he was now the leader of the spiders, no questions asked. [[108]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_3_10-108) the peter parker from earth-616 challenged his authority, stating that he had been named leader due to having fought the inheritors before. Otto mocked peter and received a punch to the face for his arrogance. The superior and amazing spider-men fought until otto revealed that he believed peter to be from before his takeover, which peter exploited by surrendering and challenging otto to prove his superiority by killing him. Otto refused, as he believed killing peter would jeopardize his existence, and peter defeated him with a single blow. To ottos surprise, peter helped him to his feet, admitting that he would need ottos expertise and advice for the coming battle. Accepting his role as adviser, otto suggested the spider-totems move from [central park](/wiki/central_park) into the city but was opposed by [captain universe](/wiki/tamara_devoux_(earth-616)), who stated they were safe as long as he was around. When peter left with an away team to give a cloaking device to the injured spider-man noir and gather more recruits, otto half-jokingly challenged [spider-uk](/wiki/william_braddock_(earth-833)) - who peter had placed in charge until his return - to a fight for the position. [[109]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_3_11-109) after captain universe and [japanese spider-man](/wiki/takuya_yamashiro_(earth-51778)) tried their best against inheritors leader, [solus](/wiki/solus_(earth-001)), but failed, the [spider-army](/wiki/spider-army_(multiverse)) relocated to [earth-3145](/wiki/earth-3145) where they found that realitys spider-man, [ben parker](/wiki/benjamin_parker_(earth-3145)). [[110]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_3_12-110) otto was aghast that earth-3145s [doctor octopus](/wiki/otto_octavius_(earth-3145)) was responsible for the desolation of that world, and when peter made a comment regarding his holographic assistants resemblance to anna maria, otto realized that peter was from later in earth-616s timeline and therefore that he loses everything. When peter failed to convince uncle ben to wear his costume one last time, otto berated ben for giving up and letting his world fall to ruin, convincing the old man to suit up one more time. [[111]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_3_13-111) during the final battle against the inheritors, otto tried to take on daemos, but had two of his mechanical legs ripped off. When [morlun](/wiki/morlun_(earth-001)) sneered that peter returning [benjy](/wiki/benjamin_richard_parker_(earth-982)) to [earth-982](/wiki/earth-982) was only prolonging the inevitable, otto proclaimed that he had found a superior solution that peter and the other spiders were too blind and gutless to see, slitting the [master weaver](/wiki/karn_(temporal_paradox)_(earth-001))s throat to morluns and peters mutual horror. After the inheritors were defeated, otto overheard miguel ohara state that the [web of life and destiny](/wiki/web_of_life_and_destiny) could be used to return them to their proper universes and times. [[112]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_3_14-112) he proceeded to attack the web, refusing to return to a world knowing the destiny it had in store for him, but even as the other spiders returned to their worlds, the spiders of earth-616 banded together to oppose him, peter proclaiming that otto lost because he acknowledged that peter was superior. With karn agreeing to act as the master weaver- with the deceased weaver apparently being his own future self- otto was resigned to return to his home time with his memories of this battle erased, although he left instructions for [anna](/wiki/anna_maria_marconi_(a.I.)_(earth-928)) to reactivate in a hundred days. [[113]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_3_15-113) superior venom after a brief fight with [agent venom](/wiki/eugene_thompson_(earth-616)), during which octavius discovered that flash thompson was behind the [symbiote](/wiki/venom_(symbiote)_(earth-616)), [[114]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_22-114) flash sought peters help in giving him a place to stay. Octavius eventually convinced flash to allow him to perform a procedure that would give him robotic leg implants, though during the procedure he forcefully removed the symbiote from flash. The symbiote, feeling isolated and scared, broke out of containment and bonded to octavius, creating a superior venom. [[7]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_23-7) despite claiming to be able to exert full control over a reluctant venom symbiote, otto became even more erratic than usual: he wounded cardiac and fled, hoping to find a villain to physically overpower, proving his new-found might. Failing to do so, he started beating up and scaring petty criminals, until anna maria called him to be consoled, having been hurt over insensitive remarks aunt may had made regarding her height. This prompted peter to storm aunt mays home, loudly berating her for her actions, then directing his anger towards mj, guilty of having taken mays side. As soon as mj tried to counter his anger, otto was informed that some of the [hobgoblin](/wiki/roderick_kingsley_(earth-616))s minions were robbing a bank and summoned the venom symbiote, leaving while warning his former family to stay away from him. [[115]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_24-115) after almost killing two of the robbers, venom was confronted by the avengers, who with the aid of flash thompson clad in an [iron man armor](/wiki/iron_man_armor) managed to defeat octavius. Octavius realized that the symbiote had been eroding his control and it abruptly took over him, lashing out at flash when he tried to convince it to return to him. Otto tried to cast the symbiote out but failed, prompting peter parkers consciousness to return to help him purge it before retreating back under the radar. Back as spider-man, otto lied to the avengers and mary jane that his behavior in the past months was due to microscopic fragments of the symbiote slowly multiplying within him. When the avengers talked to tony stark about the test they previously conducted on spider-man and found nothing, stark decided to check the data further, and discovered that all of it except the one he knew about had been erased by spider-man. With this in mind, captain america proclaimed that they would need to bring spider-man in. [[116]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_25-116) after being confronted by the avengers once more because of the missing medial scans, otto escaped. [[117]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_26-117) [goblin nation](/wiki/goblin_nation_(storyline)) 31 days later, otto is surveying the city of new york, having it come under siege by the [goblin underground](/wiki/goblin_nation_(earth-616)). He realizes that he had been chasing the wrong goblins all this while, and that it was the green goblin that was behind everything that had transpired. Back at his apartment, otto is troubled over how the green goblin managed to hack into his spider-bots, when anna maria comes in, concerned about him neglecting his health and employees at [parker industries](/wiki/parker_industries_(earth-616)). during their conversation when anna brings up the word recognize, otto has a brainwave, and attempts to call [uatu jackson](/wiki/uatu_jackson_(earth-616)) about his facial recognition software, only to be ignored, forcing him to visit jackson as spider-man, where the two discuss about the hacking. Otto then heads underground to locate the source of the transmission and runs straight into the goblin king and his henchmen. To ottos surprise, the goblin king sends off his henchmen, and talks with otto, revealing that he knew of his true identity all along, shocking otto. the goblin king then offers otto a partnership with the latter as his second. Enraged, otto refuses and swears to liberate new york from his grip. Laughing, the goblin king zaps otto, only to realize that it was only a hologram that otto projected of himself. The goblin king then gives the command to destroy spider-island. [[118]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_27now-118) otto is confused why the goblin army managed to get past his security grid. As the goblin king mocks him, the [living brain](/wiki/living_brain_(earth-616)) shields him from a blast. Otto notes with dismay that one of his favorite spiderlings have been killed. Ordering a strategic retreat, otto himself flees spider-island on the living brain and goes underwater to avoid pursuit. getting back to parker industries, otto met [sajani](/wiki/sajani_jaffrey_(earth-616)), who berates him for his absence. Just then, [wraith](/wiki/yuriko_watanabe_(earth-616)) drops in and demands answers about carlie from otto, when monster interrupts and knocks out wraith, surprising otto with her true identity. Otto and sajani flee inside the facility, where otto tells sajani to split up. Cornering monster, ottos kick destroys her earpiece, preventing the green goblin from listening in. Monster pleads with otto to use his brains to resolve the situation before the green goblins plans are realized. While all this is happening, otto is unaware that anna has been kidnapped by menace. [[119]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_28-119) otto, in his lab, makes a call to mary jane, telling her to stay safe. When mary jane mentions that aunt may is stressing out, otto tells her to deal with the situation before cutting off the conversation. He resumes his study on monster, now restrained, in an attempt to cure her of the goblin serum without killing her, when suddenly, the goblin king contacts him, telling him to put on his suit, and promises to show him interesting things. When otto does so, the goblin king projects images of the places he blows up one by one, including the house where otto grew up, to the [h.E.A.R.T clinic](/wiki/hospital_for_emergency_aid_and_recuperative_therapy_(earth-616)). otto swears to kill the goblin king, but the latter threatens otto with the life of anna maria if he does not comply with his demands of heading to empire state university, prompting otto to think about how peter parker would have resolved this crisis. He quickly swings his way to the university, where he finds the captive to be [don lamaze](/wiki/donald_lamaze_(earth-616)). Otto dismisses this as a joke, when the goblin king attempts to flee. unleashing his mechanical arms, otto starts to attack, only to find that the goblin king had hacked into his arms as well, causing them to strike at him instead. As the goblin king makes his exit, otto struggles with his arms, telling lamaze to flee. However, when a stray arm threatens to strike at ottos neck, lamaze takes the fatal blow meant for otto. With his dying breaths, lamaze states that he helped spider-man as he had helped him and anna when [stunner](/wiki/angelina_brancale_(earth-616)) attacked, and in the process showed him what a true hero really was. Otto cradles lamaze in his arms as the latter dies. swearing to find the goblin king, ottos spider-sense goes off, and he is confronted by the new [spider-slayers](/wiki/spider-slayer_mark_xxi). Jameson, projecting his voice, declares that he will kill spider-man, much to ottos shock. When otto is pinned by one of them, he is saved by the arrival of spider-man 2099, who deactivated them with a remote. Otto is questioned by him regarding his actions of late, but before anything can happen, the spider-slayers are reactivated by the goblin king, who has hacked into their systems as well, and promptly grab both spider-men by the head. [[120]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_29-120) superior no more and death the goblin king revealed otto he had taken anna maria hostage, and he promptly started looking for her. Spider-man was deceived by menace into going to the subway, as she made him believe maria was there. In the subway he found himself with the decision to save a young child, revealed to be [amy chen](/wiki/amy_chen_(kid)_(earth-616)). Otto hesitated, as there was a chance that by saving amy, he would injure himself and fail to get back in the search for maria. The consciousness of peter parker revealed his survival by pushing otto into saving the child, as there was no time for planning but just doing what was right. Otto realized he had failed as a superior spider-man and decided peter should take the control of his body back, as he could save maria and stop the goblin. Octavius arrived to what was left of parker industries and proceeded to erase his consciousness with the neurolytic scanner and let peter parker live fully once again, but in doing so, sacrificed himself for the girl he loved and the man he hated. [[31]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_30-31) the return of doc ock during [the battle](/wiki/spider-verse) against the [inheritors](/wiki/inheritors_(earth-001)), upon discovering he was fated to die once he returned to his proper place in the past of [his timeline](/wiki/earth-616), otto octavius used the technology he had acquired in [2099](/wiki/earth-928) to house a copy of his consciousness inside his gauntlets and programmed [annas a.I.](/Wiki/anna_maria_marconi_(a.I.)_(earth-928)) to enter sleep mode for one hundred days. [[25]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_4_18-25) one hundred days later, when [parker industries](/wiki/parker_industries_(earth-616)) collapsed, [[121]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_3_18-121) annas a.I. Reactivated and activated ottos back-up consciousness, who then proceeded to merge the gauntlets into an [octobot](/wiki/octobot), its mission being to regain control over peter parkers body, which he considered to be perfect. Fearing parker would cast him out of his body again, otto decided to house himself inside the [living brain](/wiki/living_brain_(earth-616)) instead, and to wait for the right time to act. [[25]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_4_18-25) over the next several months, otto worked for peter parker while plotting against him and his company whenever he had the chance. [[122]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_4_1-2-122) [[123]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_4_5-123) [[124]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_4_9-11-124) [[125]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_4_16-125) [[25]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_4_18-25) when parker decided to take a look at the living brain to see if there was any problem with it, otto asked him how his former selfs mind had been erased and went on a rampage after being told that he had sacrificed himself in order to give peter full control over his own body to defeat the [goblin king](/wiki/norman_osborn_(earth-616)), forcing peter to shut the living brain down. However, otto managed to activate the robots self-destruction and escape through his octobot body. [[25]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_4_18-25) as he believed peters body had somehow damaged his former selfs mind, otto gave up the idea of stealing it again and decided to get his biological body back by cloning and perfecting it, using [new u technologies](/wiki/new_u_technologies_(earth-616)) cloning procedure to do so. [[25]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_4_18-25) [[126]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_4_20-126) but when he arrived at potters field cemetery to acquire the genetic material he needed from his corpse, otto found out it had been stolen, which led him to investigate the graves of other criminals related to spider-man, such as the [spider-slayer](/wiki/alistaire_smythe_(earth-616)), and discover that the corpses had also been stolen. accessing the web, otto discovered new u technologies was behind the disappearance of the bodies, as he had suspected, and secretly arranged for his former selfs body to be delivered to new u headquarters, where it was cloned. As the consciousness inhabiting doctor octopus body at the time of its death was that of spider-man, [a copy of peter parkers consciousness](/wiki/peter_parker_(new_u_duplicate)_(earth-616)) was created along with the cloned body, forcing otto to fight and kill it in order to take control over the new body. Once he emerged from the vat the clone was inside, otto had [his tentacles](/wiki/doctor_octopus%27_tentacles) returned to him by the [jackal](/wiki/benjamin_reilly_(earth-616)), who was secretly the owner of new u technologies, and became doctor octopus once again. Doctor octopus later allied himself with the jackal to help him solve the problem in his cloning process in exchange for [the pills](/wiki/new_u_pills) that would prevent his body from breaking down. [[126]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_4_20-126) [dead no more](/wiki/dead_no_more:_the_clone_conspiracy) when peter parker infiltrated new u headquarters as spider-man to uncover the truth behind its cloning procedure, doctor octopus ambushed him [[127]](#cite_note-clone_conspiracy_vol_1_1-127) [[126]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_4_20-126) and revealed the truth about himself to him, as well as his involvement with parker industries as the living brain. Having insulated himself from spider-mans new webbing types, otto easily defeated spider-man but was stopped from finishing him off by the arrival of the jackal, who forced him to stand down. [[128]](#cite_note-clone_conspiracy_vol_1_2-128) when [spectro](/wiki/hector_cervantez_(earth-616)) infiltrated new u in order to help his girlfriend [silk](/wiki/cindy_moon_(earth-616)) uncover what was going on, doctor octopus captured him and conducted an experiment on him, implanting his ghost into a cloned body. [[129]](#cite_note-silk_vol_2_15-129) using the jackals cloning technology, otto began to work on a project he termed the proto clone, splicing his own genetic material with spider-mans to create a hybrid body into which he planned to transfer his consciousness. [[130]](#cite_note-clone_conspiracy_vol_1_3-130) [[5]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_4_25-5) the jackal attempted to make him put the project on hold so that they could relocate to a new location after spider-man and [spider-gwen](/wiki/gwendolyn_stacy_(earth-65)) infiltrated the facility; but otto refused, suggesting the jackal just kill and resurrect them. following the capture of [kaine](/wiki/kaine_parker_(earth-616)), otto began to work with the lizard to ensure the proto clone would not succumb to [the cellular degeneration](/wiki/carrion_virus) that the other new u clones and kaine suffered from, dismissing connors suggestion of a possible cure. Puzzling over kaines resilience in comparison to himself or [electro](/wiki/francine_frye_(earth-616)), he recognized kaines interdimensional transporter from his time in the spider-army, but was interrupted when [anna maria](/wiki/anna_maria_marconi_(earth-616)) was brought in. To ottos dismay she was disgusted and enraged with him, making him wonder if she would have preferred if he had come back in a cloned body of spider-man. Realizing that the new u facilitys shielding was slowing the clones degeneration by blocking out certain frequencies, otto and anna maria theorized that they could isolate the signals to either stop or accelerate the degenerative process. the jackal interrupted their research, and otto explained that they had managed to isolate a frequency that accelerated the degeneration. However, when the jackal insulted anna marias height, otto attacked him and discovered that the jackal was a [spider-clone](/wiki/spider-clone). Furious at having been tricked, otto broadcast the signal to trigger the clones degeneration. When the jackal started to broadcast the signal worldwide, [[131]](#cite_note-clone_conspiracy_vol_1_4-131) otto continued to fight him even as their bodies began to break down. When spider-man arrived, he and anna began work on isolating the signal to counteract the degeneration while otto kept the jackal (unmasked as ben reilly) occupied. Otto asked why spider-man would trust him, causing peter to respond that he had been inside ottos head and knew he was not all-bad. When the countersignal was broadcast, otto shattered bens [webware](/wiki/webware), telling him theyd die together. [[132]](#cite_note-clone_conspiracy_vol_1_5-132) realizing the proto clone was immune to the degeneration, ben attempted to transfer his mind into it only to be electrocuted - a precaution that otto had put in place. Otto transferred his consciousness into the proto clone, leaving his cloned body to decay into dust. [[32]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_4_24-32) superior octopus [secret empire](/wiki/secret_empire_(event)) later, otto hitched a ride to one of his old bases only to learn it had been appropriated by [hydra](/wiki/hydra_(earth-616)) in his absence. Furious over this and peters mismanagement of parker industries, otto easily defeated the intruders but was approached by [arnim zola](/wiki/arnim_zola_(earth-616)), who offered an alliance in order to take down parker industries. Accepting to gain access to hydras manpower and resources, otto constructed new and upgraded tentacles as well as a [new suit](/wiki/superior_octopus%27_suit) patterned after his [superior spider-man costume](/wiki/superior_spider-man%27s_suit), rebranding himself as the superior octopus. [[5]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_4_25-5) shortly before hydra launched its conquest of the [united states](/wiki/united_states_of_america), the superior octopus arranged a meeting with spider-man where he revealed his new identity to him and tried to convince him to relinquish control of parker industries. When peter parker refused the deal, the superior octopus had hydra agents blow up the [london branch of parker industries](/wiki/parker_industries_building_(london)). [[33]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_4_29-33) superior octopus made plans to also destroy the [shanghai branch of parker industries](/wiki/parker_industries_building_(shanghai)), [[133]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_4_30-133) but octavius was ultimately foiled when peter had those at shanghai destroy everything in the building, obliterating the webware technology and ultimately taking down parker industries itself. Octavius used an emp to destroy the [spider-armor mk iv](/wiki/spider-armor_mk_iv), only to be confronted with spider-man in [his original costume](/wiki/spider-man%27s_suit). Spider-man turned the tables on octavius and short-circuited his tentacles, forcing him to retreat, losing his arms and mask in the process. [[134]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_4_31-134) by the time hydra had taken over the nation, the superior octopus became a member of [hydras own avengers](/wiki/avengers_(hydra)_(earth-616)). [[135]](#cite_note-secret_empire_vol_1_1-135) otto was present during the final battle between hydra and the resistance in [washington, d.C.](/Wiki/washington,_d.C.), But fell when his fellow teammate [odinson](/wiki/thor_odinson_(earth-616)) turned against hydras avengers. [[136]](#cite_note-secret_empire_vol_1_9-136) [go down swinging](/wiki/go_down_swinging) after norman osborn became the red goblin by bonding with the [carnage symbiote](/wiki/carnage_(symbiote)_(earth-616)), he infected his grandson [normie osborn](/wiki/norman_harold_osborn_(earth-616)) with it and sent him to kill [may reilly](/wiki/maybelle_parker_(earth-616)) in order to emotionally hurt spider-man. Octopus still possessed parkers memories and they motivated him to protect may from normie. He was aided by [j. Jonah jameson](/wiki/john_jonah_jameson_(earth-616)) with [a remotely piloted spider-slayer](/wiki/spider-slayer_mark_v), though jameson initially thought octopus was a partner of osborn. When osborn arrived to retrieve normie, he took both octopus and the spider-slayer out and attempted to kill may with a barrage of darts, but octopus jumped in front of them. After being healed by [agent anti-venom](/wiki/eugene_thompson_(earth-616)), octopus assumed the alias of elliot tolliver and went on to work for [horizon university](/wiki/horizon_university_(earth-616)), where anna marconi (who noticed something familiar about him) was also working. With its technology, otto intended to reclaim his title as the [superior spider-man](/wiki/superior_spider-man). [[14]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_800-14) superior spider-man in san francisco [spider-geddon](/wiki/spider-geddon) combining the [jackal](/wiki/miles_warren_(earth-616))s and [jennix](/wiki/jennix_(earth-001))s cloning technology, otto created a set of duplicate bodies he could upload his conscious into should his current body be killed. [[9]](#cite_note-superior_octopus_vol_1_1-9) the [web-warriors](/wiki/web-warriors_(earth-001)) and [ultimate spider-man](/wiki/miles_morales_(earth-1610)) attacked his lab to destroy them - fearing the inheritors could use them to escape their prison - otto fought them, smugly stating that was impossible and that they should have killed the inheritors like hed suggested in the first place. The web-warriors fears were confirmed when ottos system was confirmed to have been hacked by jennix, who created new bodies for himself, morlun, and verna. Otto was nearly consumed by jennix, who tossed him aside when he realized he wasnt a pure spider-totem. [[137]](#cite_note-spider-geddon_vol_1_1-137) [octavia otto](/wiki/octavia_otto_(earth-1104)), a female counterpart of otto from [another earth](/wiki/earth-1104), programmed ottos lab to explode in order to destroy the cloning tubes. Unfortunately, during the battle, [verna](/wiki/verna_(earth-001)) acquired gwens dimensional travel watch, trapping her in another dimension and assembling [her family](/wiki/inheritors_(earth-001)). The remaining spiders returned to karn, arguing what to do with the inheritors, dividing opinions and causing a discussion. However, karn suggested to stop wasting time arguing and get other spiders to fight the inheritors. With his costume damaged, otto returned to his lab with octavia and spider-punk and changed to a replica of the second version of the [superior spider-mans suit](/wiki/superior_spider-man%27s_suit). Returning to his superior spider-man identity, otto recruited kaine, presuming that he still possessed [the other](/wiki/other_(spider-totem)_(multiverse)), who informed the former that he did not. Kaine suggested they also recruit ben reilly, but otto refused. They go back to his lab, unaware that ben swung through the portal. [[6]](#cite_note-spider-geddon_vol_1_2-6) later, otto recruited the [spider-man](/wiki/peter_parker_(earth-1048)) of [earth-1048](/wiki/earth-1048), defeating the villain [tarantula](/wiki/anton_miguel_rodriquez_(earth-1048)) in the process. For unknown reasons, he left a [spider-bot](/wiki/spider-bots) in that earth when learning of the status of that worlds [otto octavius](/wiki/otto_octavius_(earth-1048)). [[138]](#cite_note-spider-geddon_vol_1_0-138) otto and peter later recruited the [spider-man](/wiki/takuya_yamashiro_(earth-51778)) of [earth-51778](/wiki/earth-51778). When his team was all assembled, ben reilly, the former jackal, revealed himself to them and offered his help. Though he declined at first, otto realized he could help a lot since he created the cloning tubes the inheritors are using. Miles contacted them and said his team was planning an attack, forcing some of the superior spider-armys spider-people to rescue them. [[139]](#cite_note-spider-geddon_vol_1_3-139) they managed to retreat to their base, with [spider-man](/wiki/norman_osborn_(earth-44145)), an alternate spider-version of norman osborn from [earth-44145](/wiki/earth-44145), having a discussion with otto, suggesting he take over the leadership. Their disagreement led norman and [spiders-man](/wiki/spiders-man_(earth-11580)) to separate from the group; however, norman destroyed the [web of life and destiny](/wiki/web_of_life_and_destiny) to leave the inheritors trapped in earth-616. When the inheritors retrieved the crystal containing [solus](/wiki/solus_(earth-001)) soul, since they planned to use the jackals cloning technology to revive their father but couldnt do it without the crystal. After his resurrection, otto would give ben to jennix feast on him in order to acquire his knowledge about the cloning tubes. [[140]](#cite_note-spider-geddon_vol_1_4-140) however, this was just a plan to destroy jennixs maniacal mind since he was forced to see through bens point of view all the times he died and was resurrected. Fortunately, shortly after realizing his plan, the spider-people appeared, with miles morales now with the power of the [enigma force](/wiki/enigma_force_(earth-616)). Otto revived ben, and later, peter arrived and decided to lend the leadership to otto, meaning miles killing solus with earth-51778s spider-mans sword vigor. After realizing solus put the hunger in his sons, they decided to create new clone baby bodies to the inheritors, without their hunger and their past life memory, who would later be adopted by [spider-maam](/wiki/maybelle_parker_(earth-3123)). [[141]](#cite_note-spider-geddon_vol_1_5-141) return to heroics otto as spider-man defeated [stilt-man](/wiki/wilbur_day_(earth-616)) on his way to deliver a speech as elliot tolliver at [horizon university](/wiki/horizon_university_(location)) and afterwards reflected on his past. Later in the evening he met up with [night shift](/wiki/night_shift_(earth-616)) members [digger](/wiki/roderick_krupp_(earth-616)) and [dansen macabre](/wiki/dansen_macabre_(earth-616)) to defeat a cult dedicated to [master pandemonium](/wiki/martin_preston_(earth-616)). The next day he was confronted at horizon by anna maria, who had deduced he was actually otto octavius and not really elliot tolliver. She was going to turn him over to the [police](/wiki/san_francisco_police_department_(earth-616)) but changed her mind when [terrax the tamer](/wiki/tyros_(earth-616)) attacked [san francisco](/wiki/san_francisco). [[34]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_2_1-34) the superior spider-man confronted terrax alongside the night shift, but was abandoned by his allies when digger was bisected. He continued to fight a losing battle while anna maria built and delivered an [inductors](/wiki/inductors) device that allowed him to drain some of terraxs [power cosmic](/wiki/power_cosmic). [[142]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_2_2-142) spider-man reentered the battle infused with cosmic energy, but terrax was still more skilled in its use. The former [herald](/wiki/heralds_of_galactus_(earth-616)) was eventually defeated when otto and anna work together to reprogram [terraxs axe](/wiki/terrax%27s_axe) to backfire on him. After the battle, anna agreed to allow otto to continue his hero career, but only if she were his chaperone. [[143]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_2_3-143) at the urging of anna, otto participated in the disaster relief in san francisco as the superior spider-man. Throughout the course of the day he began to realize the value of civilians through his different interactions. Afterwards he was invited on a date by [emma hernandez](/wiki/emma_hernandez_(earth-616)) and agreed. [[144]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_2_4-144) ottos date with emma went well until he revealed his true identity, which caused her to flee from his apartment. He followed her as spider-man, and they were confronted by police officers possessed by master pandemoniums [demons](/wiki/demons) and emma was possessed as well. Otto contacted [doctor strange](/wiki/stephen_strange_(earth-616)) for aid, who initially attacked him before being shown the demonic infestation. By combining their efforts, they were able to track down and confront master pandemonium. [[145]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_2_5-145) the pair of doctors ended up defeating pandemonium by swapping equipment, but strange refused to wipe emmas memory for him afterwards; however, anna maria helped him convince emma to keep his identity a secret because he had saved her. [[146]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_2_6-146) [war of the realms](/wiki/war_of_the_realms) when [frost giants](/wiki/frost_giants) invaded san francisco, superior spider-man saved its citizens by transferring them into a limbo state using experimental technology. He then decided to team up with the [west coast avengers](/wiki/avengers_west_coast_(earth-616)) in order to make use of [ms. America](/wiki/america_chavez_(earth-616))s abilities. After he rescued them in [los angeles](/wiki/los_angeles) using his octavian lens, he managed to convince them of his plan to stop the war at its source in the [asgardian realms](/wiki/asgard_(realm)); however, they needed to travel to [new york city](/wiki/new_york_city) to find a way there, as magic was interfering with ms. Americas powers. [[147]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_2_7-147) they arrived amidst a battle between the [fantastic four](/wiki/fantastic_four_(earth-616)) and [malekith](/wiki/malekith_(earth-616))s forces where otto was able to work with [mister fantastic](/wiki/reed_richards_(earth-616)) to develop a way to allow ms. America to duplicate the energies of the [bifrost](/wiki/bifrost). They failed to locate the [svartalfheim](/wiki/svartalfheim) strike team so they moved on to the [jotunheim](/wiki/jotunheim) [strikeforce](/wiki/jotunheim_strikeforce_(earth-616)), who convinced otto to trust them and focus on protecting [midgard](/wiki/earth). He then returned to new york to protect its citizens alongside the west coast avengers. [[148]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_2_8-148) [[149]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_2_9-149) [[150]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_2_10-150) doctor octopus once more targeted by the norman osborn spider-man of earth-44145, who sought to destroy ottos life in revenge for having insulted him during the second totem war, otto was approached by [mephisto](/wiki/mephisto_(earth-616)), who offered him a way to defeat norman. [[151]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_2_9-10-151) despite anna maria begging him not to throw away the good inside himself, otto accepted mephistos bargain and was restored to his original body and state of mind from before he ever mind-swapped with peter parker. [[2]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_2_11-2) (an alternate universe variant of otto later claimed to be the one who magically and clandestinely convinced him to accept mephistos deal.) [[152]](#cite_note-devils_reign_superior_four_vol_1_3-152) a spare cloned body was used as a decoy to fool norman, and later buried as elliot tolliver. [[35]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_2_12-35) as is typical with mephisto, the details of this deal are somewhat confusing. Otto has seemingly lost all of peter parkers memories but retained all of the ones since he was duplicated after the battle against the inheritors. For instance, though otto did not remember peters identity or the events from the first time he was the superior spider-man, he remembered his alliance with the jackal through the war of the realms, and people such as anna maria, from the new u crisis to the present. This also meant that while he remembered being a hero, he now associated more with villainy, just as he did before the initial mind-swap. The deal also included restoring ottos body to perfect shape, not only fixing the damage of all fights as octopus, but also the brain damage he suffered while becoming octopus — if any. This suggested that mephisto was convinced the brain damage was a false excuse and otto would return to criminal behavior regardless. [[2]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_2_11-2) sinister war while in a quest to fill the missing gaps in his memory, otto was forced into the service of the demon [kindred](/wiki/harold_osborn_(earth-616)). [[153]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_5_64-153) kindred instructed otto to reform the sinister six, for which he recruited sandman, [[154]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_5_68-154) revived electro, [[155]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_5_69-155) and enlisted the new [kraven the hunter](/wiki/last_son_of_kraven_(earth-616)). [[156]](#cite_note-giant-size_amazing_spider-man_chameleon_conspiracy_vol_1_1-156) forcing the [isotope genome accelerator](/wiki/isotope_genome_accelerator) on dr. Curt connors, otto separated the scientists lizard side into a [separate entity](/wiki/lizard_(isotope_genome_accelerator_duplicate)_(earth-616)) for his team. The final member, chosen by kindred, was mysterio, [[157]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_5_70-157) who the sinister six retrieved from the premiere of a film he had directed under a false identity. The team briefly clashed with the [savage six](/wiki/savage_six_(kraven)_(earth-616)), who had also intercepted the premiere to enact revenge on mysterio. Spider-man became involved in the fray, and octavius knocked him down to deliver him to kindred, whose torment was the demons endgame. [[158]](#cite_note-sinister_war_vol_1_1-158) doctor octopus and the sinister six were then forced to participate in a hunt for spider-man, competing against other teams assembled by kindred, including the [syndicate](/wiki/syndicate_(beetle)_(earth-616)), [wild pack](/wiki/wild_pack_(earth-616)), and the savage six. [[159]](#cite_note-sinister_war_vol_1_2-159) at one point during the battle royale, doctor octopus had spider-man in his grasp but hesitated to kill him long enough for the savage six to interfere, giving spider-man the chance to escape. [[160]](#cite_note-sinister_war_vol_1_3-160) realizing that kindred wouldnt give him the answers he seeked, otto used [black ant](/wiki/eric_o%27grady_(lmd)_(earth-616))s helmet signal to kill the centipedes that kindred was using to control him and the other villains during the fight, leaving all of them unconscious and saving spider-man. The hero thanked him, but otto claimed that he was just getting revenge on kindred for not going through with their agreement before leaving. [[161]](#cite_note-sinister_war_vol_1_4-161) beyond corporation while reuniting with and helping may parker find a cure for peter to awaken him from his coma, they come across a company called infinite solutions. This intrigues otto, and upon further investigation, he discovers it is a shell company for the beyond corporation, which is utilizing parker industries technology - his technology. Otto reacts with smugly saying that hell show beyond whos superior. [[162]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_5_80bey-162) superior four when mayor wilson fisk started a war against vigilantism and super heroes as part of a vendetta against [daredevil](/wiki/matthew_murdock_(earth-616)), otto started working for him while secretly having his own ulterior motives. After having reed richards and sue storm imprisoned, fisk gave the baxter building to otto. [[163]](#cite_note-devils_reign_vol_1_1-163) otto helped fisk by creating a device that would use the imprisoned the [purple man](/wiki/zebediah_killgrave_(earth-616)) to coerce people within new york into voting for him so that wilson would win the elections again. Otto used the multiversal technology from reeds lab to summon three [versions](/wiki/otto_howlett_(earth-9712)) of [himself](/wiki/otto_blaze_(earth-1666)) from other universes, creating an unstoppable group. [[164]](#cite_note-devils_reign_vol_1_2-164) ock tried to campaign against fisk in his mayoral race by having the chameleon pose as tony stark and win the elections. However, stark was outvoted when the heroes choose luke cage as their candidate. Otto also planned to attack the mayor with his superior four but was interrupted by the heroes doing the exact same thing, which lead to a fight that gained fisks attention. [[165]](#cite_note-devils_reign_vol_1_3-165) after his deal with mephisto regressed what he considered to be an evolution of his baser self, otto hoped to create a council of ocks across the multiverse and control everything. Traveling to earth-5069, otto soon realized that he wasnt a fixed variant in the multiverse like spider-man or iron man. Otto and his variants decided to wage war against any other version of themselves from the multiverse in order to create a destructive wave across the multiverse in hopes that it would branch and create dozens of new ock variants. Starting at earth-2902, where they killed [spider-ock](/wiki/spider-ock_(tj)_(earth-2902)), with otto absorbing his entire intellect, making his own mind grow. [[166]](#cite_note-devils_reign_superior_four_vol_1_1-166) the assassination of spider-ock left otto exhilarated, which worried his other variants who quickly tried to stop him, leading to a fight where the superior four were forcibly transported to another earth before being yanked out by otto von strange, the supreme octopus. His other three variants surrendered themselves to this superior foe while ock and was imprisoned in the magicians supreme sanctorum. [[167]](#cite_note-devils_reign_superior_four_vol_1_2-167) otto was freed from his confinement by a [mysterious plant creature](/wiki/otto_octavius_(earth-5069)) that seemed to be another one of his variants. The plant bonded with otto and he claimed that this new variant was created from the blood he dropped into the biological wasteland of earth-5069. Otto and his man-thing variant rescued the superior four and together they defeated supreme ock. The superior four returned to earth-616 hoping to stay and rid new york of all crime, but not before leaving the man-thing otto on earth-2902 where he acted as a new spider-ock. [[152]](#cite_note-devils_reign_superior_four_vol_1_3-152) [[168]](#cite_note-devils_reign_vol_1_4-168)fisk eventually turned on ock, and while otto had a neural blocker that protected him from the purple mans powers, his variants did not. Otto saw how his variants joined the mind-controlled thunderbolt units as a super-charged killgrave was let loose on the streets. [[169]](#cite_note-devils_reign_vol_1_5-169)during the battle against the purple man, otto was knocked out by iron man and later arrested. [[170]](#cite_note-devils_reign_vol_1_6-170) attributes powers [cybernetic tentacles](/wiki/doctor_octopus%27_tentacles): doctor octopus superhuman abilities derive from the four mentally-controlled, electronically-powered, telescoping, prehensile titanium-steel tentacles attached to a stainless steel harness encircling his body from lower chest to waist. Each tentacle, approximately five inches in diameter, terminates in three single-jointed pincers. The pincers are able to rotate in relation to the arm for 360 degrees, in a screwdriver-like twisting motion. Each tentacle segment contains four high-efficiency electric motors equipped with a clutched, helical-gear train, independently mounted on frictionless gimbals and housed in four thin, overlapping layers of titanium-niobium steel. The titanium-steel alloy is light, has high-tensile strength, a high melting point, and high thin-wall rigidity. The motors get their power from a small nuclear-powered thermo-electric generator, which can provide several hundred watts per hour for up to five years before needing to replace its u-239 core. The tentacles have been modified since the time of the original accident to include high-efficiency battery packs (enabling movement when cut off from the central power source) and individual micro-circuit control modules (enabling each arm to perform certain pre-programmed actions when octopus loses conscious control). In the event that octopus loses consciousness, the control module of each arm has enough pre-programmed conditional responses in its memory chip to enable it to perform a relatively complex sequence of actions, such as saving his life. The trauma of his arm or arms being separated from the harness causes a period of disorientation in which his arms flail about uncontrollably until the pre-programming takes over. [[42]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_12-42) - technopathic tentacle manipulation: octopus can control the actions of his artificial arms psionically, even when they have been severed from his body and are separated from him by vast distances (a distance of 900 miles has been recorded). [[61]](#cite_note-peter_parker,_the_spectacular_spider-man_annual_vol_1_1-61) - telescoping: each tentacle is approximately six feet long at full contraction, but can extend to a maximum of 24 feet in length. [[41]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_11-41) - superhuman striking force: each tentacle is capable of moving at a speed of ninety feet per second and strike with the force of a jackhammer. [[171]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_428-171) - high-wind generation: the tentacles can generate 50 mile per hour winds if spun like a giant fan. [[45]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_53-45) - wall-climbing and traveling: by combining the intrinsic strength of both his tentacles and the pincers, doctor octopus can scale stone, brick, or concrete walls by rending handholds in the surface of the wall. Octopus is able to use his tentacles for traversing horizontal distances as well. At full extension, he can travel high above the ground as if on stilts, either using two tentacles, or for maximum speed (approximately 50 miles per hour), four tentacles. [[45]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_53-45) - sensation feeling: although there are no nerve endings throughout the length of his artificial arms, octopus can feel basic sensations with them. As a result of the mutagenic changes from exposure to radiation during the accident, electrical connections have been made from his chest harness to his spine. Thus, doctor octopus can mentally perceive tactile sensations by feeling the amount of electrical resistance that the pincers electric motors feel when the pincers grasp an object. [[49]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_88-49) abilities [genius intelligence](/wiki/genius_intelligence): otto octavius is a multi-discipline scientist with expertise in various fields of science. [[10]](#cite_note-avengers_now!_vol_1_1-10) - radiation specialist: doctor octopus is one of the worlds leading authorities on nuclear radiation and its effect on animal physiology. [[26]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_3-26) [[66]](#cite_note-fantastic_four_vol_1_267-66) - engineering: doctor octopus is a brilliant engineer and inventor, due to his own ability and more recently due to having peters memories. [[26]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_3-26) - high concentration: doctor octopus possesses extraordinary mental abilities and concentration, and through years of practice is able to perform two complex and two simple independent actions, simultaneously, one with each arm.[ [citation needed](/wiki/marvel_database:citation)] weaknesses arrogance: on many occasions, ottos pride has been a major factor in many of his defeats. Otto considers himself to be the smartest person on the planet and that he could never be wrong due to his massive intellect. This confidence in his own intelligence frequently causes him to ignore factors that could derail his plans leaving him unprepared for when these factors come into play. This also makes him at wits with other heroes, mostly the avengers. [[101]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_8-101) paraphernalia equipment weapons [doctor octopus tentacles](/wiki/doctor_octopus%27_tentacles): doctor octopus has possessed a total of three different harnesses during his career: the original titanium harness, a more powerful adamantium harness, and the current harness, which was modified in 2004 to resemble the version seen in the movie [spider-man 2](/wiki/spider-man_2_(film)). The original and adamantium harnesses were both destroyed in the lethal foes of spider-man miniseries. The current harness has eight tentacles as opposed to four. - original harness: with his titanium harness, doc ock was able to beat [daredevil](/wiki/matthew_murdock_(earth-616)), a seasoned combatant with superhuman senses, almost to death out of sheer power. [[181]](#cite_note-daredevil_vol_1_165-181)it was also temporarily worn by spider-man after octavius death, until the hobgoblin caused it to short-circuit via pumpkin bomb. Spider-man than proceeded to rip them apart when he lost control. transportation notes - doctor octopus was the first spider-man villain ever to be given a real name in their debut appearance. - doctor octopus was vol 1 96 in the series a marvel value stamps, released in the 1970s. - ottos phone number as the superior spider-man was 800-555-7739 and he advertised it as 1-800-555-spdy. [[185]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_15-185) - at one point, a boy named [oliver osnick](/wiki/oliver_osnick_(earth-616))ran away from home, having stolen his fathers octopus-like equipment. He intended to become doctor octopus sidekick, which was to be very much ill-fated. After a brief skirmish with spider-man, osnick was returned home, without his tentacles. - otto dislikes [mutants](/wiki/mutants_(homo_superior))and [clones](/wiki/clones), calling them respectively genetic freaks [[186]](#cite_note-avenging_spider-man_vol_1_16-186)and abominations. [[187]](#cite_note-scarlet_spider_vol_2_20-187) - after hearing a recording of himself in his prime, otto stated that he sounded like an underwater walrus (it is notable to state that he was in spider-mans body at the time of him listening to the recording). [[96]](#cite_note-avenging_spider-man_vol_1_151-96) - otto hates dealing with children. [[188]](#cite_note-avenging_spider-man_vol_1_17-188) - he doesnt believe people can change. [[99]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_5-99) [[103]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_11-103) - when spider-man revealed that the superior spider-man was really doctor octopus on live television, no one believed him. [[189]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_3_5-189) trivia - the dc comics super villain gorgon)is based on doctor octopus; a morbidly obese man with prosthetic hands and a number of coil-like tentacles growing out of his head, gorgon is a member of the extremists), a team of villains from a parallel world all based on popular marvel comics villains. - another doctor octopus homage outside of marvel comics is the octopus, a criminal “super-freak” in erik larsens savage dragon. His real name dr. Wipple, the octopus is a criminal scientist with the beak of an octopus and four massive tentacles growing out of his torso. More mild-mannered than his inspiration, he is often seen in the series doing scientific work alongside fellow criminal scientist, openface. - otto used facebook, skype, and twitter. [[118]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_1_27now-118) - in his first appearance, his surname was spelt octavious. [[26]](#cite_note-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_3-26) - ottos favorite of peter parkers suits was his [black cloth suit](/wiki/spider-man%27s_suit#black_cloth_suit), as he found it slimming. [[190]](#cite_note-spider-man/deadpool_vol_1_48-190) - octavius is an atheist. [[191]](#cite_note-avengers_vol_7_10-191) - ottos former alias, elliot tolliver, has a meaning that reflects his egomaniac personality and abilities: - elliot is the greek form of the hebrew name elijah, which means jehovah is god. This refers to how otto considers himself superior, sometimes exhibiting a god complex. - tolliver is the english form of the italian family name taliaferro, which itself derives from tagliare (to cut) and ferro (iron). This name was often used as a nickname for a metal worker or a fighter. This refers to both ottos intellect for engineering as well his fighting skills thanks to [peter parker](/wiki/peter_parker_(earth-616))s genes. - the last syllable of his first name and first syllable of his surname also spells out otto, his real first name. - despite the time he was a partial clone of [spider-man](/wiki/peter_parker_(earth-616))and possessing all of his powers, otto was not a spider-totem. [[137]](#cite_note-spider-geddon_vol_1_1-137) - otto doesnt like kielbasa. [[144]](#cite_note-superior_spider-man_vol_2_4-144) see also [517 appearance(s) of otto octavius (earth-616)](/wiki/category:otto_octavius_(earth-616)/appearances) [23 appearance(s) in handbook(s) of otto octavius (earth-616)](/wiki/category:otto_octavius_(earth-616)/handbook_appearances) [198 minor appearance(s) of otto octavius (earth-616)](/wiki/category:otto_octavius_(earth-616)/minor_appearances) [320 mention(s) of otto octavius (earth-616)](/wiki/category:otto_octavius_(earth-616)/mentions) [18 mention(s) in handbook(s) of otto octavius (earth-616)](/wiki/category:otto_octavius_(earth-616)/handbook_mentions) [958 image(s) of otto octavius (earth-616)](/wiki/category:otto_octavius_(earth-616)/images) [114 quotation(s) by or about otto octavius (earth-616)](/wiki/category:otto_octavius_(earth-616)/quotes) [12 victim(s) killed by otto octavius (earth-616)](/wiki/category:killed_by_otto_octavius_(earth-616)) [20 item(s) used/owned by otto octavius (earth-616)](/wiki/category:otto_octavius_(earth-616)/items) links and references references [?](#Cite_ref-official_handbook_of_the_marvel_universe_a_to_z_vol_1_3_1-0) [official handbook of the marvel universe a to z #3](/wiki/official_handbook_of_the_marvel_universe_a_to_z_vol_1_3) - ? [2.0](#cite_ref-superior_spider-man_vol_2_11_2-0) [2.1](#cite_ref-superior_spider-man_vol_2_11_2-1) [2.2](#cite_ref-superior_spider-man_vol_2_11_2-2) [2.3](#cite_ref-superior_spider-man_vol_2_11_2-3) [superior spider-man (vol. 2) #11](/wiki/superior_spider-man_vol_2_11) - ? [3.0](#cite_ref-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_32_3-0) [3.1](#cite_ref-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_32_3-1) [amazing spider-man #32](/wiki/amazing_spider-man_vol_1_32) - ? [4.0](#cite_ref-official_handbook_of_the_marvel_universe_spider-man_2004_vol_1_1_4-0) [4.1](#cite_ref-official_handbook_of_the_marvel_universe_spider-man_2004_vol_1_1_4-1) [4.2](#cite_ref-official_handbook_of_the_marvel_universe_spider-man_2004_vol_1_1_4-2) [official handbook of the marvel universe: spider-man 2004 #1](/wiki/official_handbook_of_the_marvel_universe:_spider-man_2004_vol_1_1) - ? [5.0](#cite_ref-amazing_spider-man_vol_4_25_5-0) [5.1](#cite_ref-amazing_spider-man_vol_4_25_5-1) [5.2](#cite_ref-amazing_spider-man_vol_4_25_5-2) [5.3](#cite_ref-amazing_spider-man_vol_4_25_5-3) [amazing spider-man (vol. 4) #25](/wiki/amazing_spider-man_vol_4_25) - ? [6.0](#cite_ref-spider-geddon_vol_1_2_6-0) [6.1](#cite_ref-spider-geddon_vol_1_2_6-1) [spider-geddon #2](/wiki/spider-geddon_vol_1_2) - ? [7.0](#cite_ref-superior_spider-man_vol_1_23_7-0) [7.1](#cite_ref-superior_spider-man_vol_1_23_7-1) [7.2](#cite_ref-superior_spider-man_vol_1_23_7-2) [superior spider-man #23](/wiki/superior_spider-man_vol_1_23) [?](#Cite_ref-superior_spider-man_vol_1_33_8-0) [superior spider-man #33](/wiki/superior_spider-man_vol_1_33) - ? [9.0](#cite_ref-superior_octopus_vol_1_1_9-0) [9.1](#cite_ref-superior_octopus_vol_1_1_9-1) [9.2](#cite_ref-superior_octopus_vol_1_1_9-2) [9.3](#cite_ref-superior_octopus_vol_1_1_9-3) [superior octopus #1](/wiki/superior_octopus_vol_1_1) - ? [10.0](#cite_ref-avengers_now!_vol_1_1_10-0) [10.1](#cite_ref-avengers_now!_vol_1_1_10-1) [10.2](#cite_ref-avengers_now!_vol_1_1_10-2) [10.3](#cite_ref-avengers_now!_vol_1_1_10-3) [avengers now! #1](/wiki/avengers_now!_vol_1_1) - ? [11.0](#cite_ref-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_697_11-0) [11.1](#cite_ref-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_697_11-1) [amazing spider-man #697](/wiki/amazing_spider-man_vol_1_697) [?](#Cite_ref-amazing_spider-man_vol_4_1_12-0) [amazing spider-man (vol. 4) #1](/wiki/amazing_spider-man_vol_4_1) - ? [13.0](#cite_ref-superior_spider-man_vol_1_32_13-0) [13.1](#cite_ref-superior_spider-man_vol_1_32_13-1) [superior spider-man #32](/wiki/superior_spider-man_vol_1_32) - ? [14.0](#cite_ref-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_800_14-0) [14.1](#cite_ref-amazing_spider-man_vol_1_800_14-1) [amazing spider-man #800](/wiki/amazing_spider-man_vol_1_800) [?](#Cite_ref-superior_spider-man_team-up_vol_1_7_15-0) [superior spider-man team-up #7](/wiki/superior_spider-man_team-up_vol_1_7) [?](#Cite_ref-amazing_spider-man_vol_6_17_16-0) [amazing spider-man (vol. 6) #17](/wiki/amazing_spider-man_vol_6_17) - ? [17.0](#cite_ref-amazing_spider-man_annual_vol_1_1_17-0) [17.1](#cite_ref-amazing_spider-man_annual_vol_1_1_17-1) [17.2](#cite_ref-amazing_spider-man_annual_vol_1_1_17-2) [17.3](#cite_ref-amazing_spider-man_annual_vol_1_1_17-3) [17.4](#cite_ref-amazing_spider-man_annual_vol_1_1_17-4) [amazing spider-man annual #1](/wiki/amazing_spider-man_annual_vol_1_1) [?](#Cite_ref-amazing_spider-man_vol_6_45_18-0) [amazing spider-man (vol. 6) #45](/wiki/amazing_spider-man_vol_6_45) - ? [19.0](#cite_ref-untold_tales_of_spider-man_(novel)-,_%22arms_and_the_man%22_19-0) [19.1](#cite_ref-untold_tales_of_spider-man_(novel)-,_%22arms_and_the_man%22_19-1)u
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    Name of the book: Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Power
    Posted on Wednesday, July 24 @ 00:00:17 PDT (0 reads)
    College Guide Author: rajiv malhotra publisher: rupa publications india pvt. Ltd. place of publication: new delhi year of publication: 2023 (tenth impression) reviewed by: j.N. Manokaran rajiv malhotra is a well-known ideologue of right-wing thinkers, who has written a few books, including breaking india. This book explores the artificial intelligence and power dynamics that would affect geopolitics, social life, economy. Technological disruption is occurring faster. Earlier disruptions were an intergenerational shift and did not affect the worker’s mid-career. Many will be too young to retire but too old to retrain easily. An epoch of disequilibrium is inevitable. Both white-collar and blue-collar jobs would become obsolete, and new jobs would be for those who have high levels of education. As a consequence, the rich and the poor divide would widen. according to the author, artificial intelligence is amplifying human ingenuity, with the use of algorithms, that silently disrupt and shake the foundation of society. He points out five battles: for economic development and jobs; for power in the new world order; for psychological control of desires and agency; for the metaphysics of the self and its ethics; and india’s future. dominating countries: china is using ai to leapfrog ahead of the usa. China and the usa recognize ai as the summit to be conquered in the race for leadership in economic, political, and military affairs. Both control a vast majority of ai-related intellectual property, investments, and market share. “Britain achieved dominance through the industrial revolution, and china aspires to achieve it through ai revolution.” (Page 103) like rome which used roads, china is using the infrastructure of roads, railways, and seaports in addition to digital highways to build its empire. digital colonialism: disruptive technology will weaken sovereign states and destabilize fragile political equilibriums. Technologically advanced nations could colonize other nations. Private companies controlling the technology are powerful than many countries just as the british east india company was. India is heading toward re-colonization under the domination of the us and/or china. Social media platforms undermine the traditional source of authority, replacing them with algorithms. automation: automation was done for routine work; it was difficult for jobs that require creativity, intuition, emotion, complex coordination, mechanical dexterity, and complex spatial reasoning. Because of automation, unskilled labor would be less valuable as only a small portion of the over-call cost is used for labor. autopilot mode machines are getting smarter, and a growing number of humans are becoming dumber. They outsource critical thinking, and memory and are operating on autopilot mode. The manipulation is done in the guise of free service, hence difficult to resist. In some sense, machines know individuals even better than they know themselves. a gold mine of data machines are trained using large quantities of data acquired from the public who give voluntarily. In turn, their responses are monitored, tracked, and recorded. Machine intelligence also could provide artificially induced emotions and gratification. Data has been called the new oil that powers the generators of the digital economy. The value of data depends on specific kinds of data and what the companies do with it. Developing countries receive modest amounts of money for the exchange of vast amounts of data. They are also at risk of a ‘data trap.’ Billions are minutely tracked from cradle to grave. The big data five vs: variety, volume, velocity, veracity and value. biological materialism: machines are being trained to achieve intelligent behavior; hence some people think that the mind, life, and consciousness are just biological processes. The real clash of civilizations is the war between algorithm and being. This would result in digital dehumanization that will undercut free will, personal agency, and self. indian society status “indian society has forsaken its metaphysical roots in dharma to chase the americanization of artha (material pursuits) and kama (gratification of sensual desires). As a result, it is neither here nor there.” Overpopulation, unemployment, and poor education make india vulnerable. India has squandered its software lead. algorithm vs being people have become comfortable with machines and are increasingly speaking to their devices.” Machines can thoroughly observe and profile patterns of behavior. Machine learning as of now is highly context-specific. Machine learning could be shared with other machines, hence getting data across life spans. Ai is moving from wearable to implants, that can make an augmented human being. Virtual reality goggles create a three-dimensional experience. Special clothing can stimulate the experience of an imagined climate. Machines could replace people by performing the job better at a lower cost. Because of ethical concern and legal restraint, designer babies are not made. Drones equipped with facial recognition can attack a specific person. unsupervised learning “the term unsupervised learning refers to machine learning in which the system is turned loose to explore and discover structure on its own.” (Page 39) the machines are becoming more like humans and humans are becoming more like machines. millennials and generation z millennials and generation z are willing to give up privacy and autonomy in exchange for delights offered by new technology. platform: a company with a collection of mechanisms bringing together a set of parties to interact with each other. Platform companies are growing far faster than any other sector of the world economy by creating interactions between external producers and consumers. Marketers pay for targeted and intimate access to consumers. Google is hard to beat in search engines; facebook – is social relationships and interpersonal relationships; and amazon is e-commerce. Some private companies are more powerful than many nation-states. Such companies will decide who will, and who will not, be given access to this new form of power, and on what terms. Ai will be a decisive factor in determining the fate of the nations. new caste system “society will effectively establish a new kind of caste system. Intellectual property developers and their investors will occupy the top position, followed by the technology workers, and finally the masses at the bottom.” (Page 88) the challenge weans away the rich from the intoxication of materialism and personal grandeur. deaths of despair a world with less work for people to do. The threat of technological unemployment is real. “Gone in a flash was the america dream: for the first time in three generations, the next generation was less upwardly mobile than their parents and grandparents. Much of the white american working class, especially those without a college education, has been riddled with broken families. As life became harder, society saw an associated rise in what has been called deaths of despair.” (Page 96) china assertion according to the author, china developed on its own terms. “The sacrifice of basic human rights empowered the government to pull out of abject poverty through rapid modernization.” (Page 119) economic prosperity and human rights are the priority. China educated all citizens: men and women. China anticipates the next game-changing technology and works towards it. Constant innovation and ruthless self-preservation are the only rules. Using cleverness, tricks, and subterfuge entrepreneurs blatantly copy ideas and techniques from wherever they could to get ahead. Since china lacked credit card penetration, it developed new systems in which cheap smartphones serve as credit cards. Genetics is weaponized biotechnology. China is developing genetic weapons to win a bloodless victory. Ai is used by china for surveillance, reconnaissance, logistics, command, and control, and in developing lethal autonomous weapons. China has imitated americans and is in the process of surpassing them. China has a long-term vision of nation-building and preserved the han cultural identity. hardware and software “rome’s strengths were its military prowess, centralized administration, and proficiency in engineering. Greece was strong in philosophy, art, and culture. In modern parlance, the romans wielded hard power while the greeks possessed soft power. The encounter between them. Beginning in the eighth century bce and lasting nearly one thousand years resulted in what is now known as greco-roman civilization.” (Page 140) soft power cannot be supported or maintained without adequate hard power. emotional role of ai emotional and intuitive machine learning is at the cutting edge of ai research. “The acting job is successful if the audience feels that the character is realistic. It is irrelevant how the actor feels internally, as that is invisible to the audience; all that counts is how authentically the actor can project externally. Likewise, a machine is successful in its emotional role if it acts appropriately according to people’s expectations. Whether the machine feels any actual emotion is simply irrelevant.” (Page 157) predicting individual behavior by modeling emotional patterns; substituting for human contact by providing emotional interaction; and influencing moods and shifting people’s choices toward a product or idea with emotional values. Affective computing systems can look at a face and know if the person is happy, sad, delighted, angry, etc. Ai-generated movies can end depending on the measured emotional state of a viewer. Robots could serve as therapists, counselors, and friends of lonely men, and also act as the first line of defense and protection. The world is witnessing the commodification of emotions. dumbing down of the masses social media has caused memory atrophy, shortened attention span, and a decline in study habits. Yuval noah harari supports the cognitive takeover by machines. He says it would be better if they surrendered their decision-making power to companies like google. He says that google knows better about a person than the person himself. Machines will not be affected by emotional delusions. In other words, all people should relinquish their humanity to google. Machines capture private information and interpret human activities. consumers’ psychology “virtual reality can be used, for example, to provide the sense of walking around the neighborhood, even if one is physically confined at home.” (Page 167) ar goggles transport them to the place of their dreams. People prefer excitement to boredom and contentment to anxiety, digital marketing companies substitute artificial gratification to manipulate users’ emotions. Platforms are making users to be addicted to their products and reinforcing emotional cravings. Platform controls users by exploiting the deepest desire for dignity and respect. The author also states that social media has emotionally empowered scores of mediocre individuals who measure up to an artificial barometer of success. Dependence on social media for emotional wellness will have serious consequences. digital slavery amazon kindle could monitor which parts of a book a person spends more time on when he takes a break, what definitions the reader searched, what highlighted portions, and what thoughts make a person happy angry, or sad. Social media has become the new opium of the masses. “Though people abhor the idea of being slave to another human, they are willing to become slaves of an impersonal entity like society.” (Page 181) new gods of digital era: google-devata, facebook-devata, twitter-devata…etc. comments about religion people wanted religion because it gave meaning to their lives. The same applies to digital media today. There is a biased comment without reason: “we are also familiar with the way missionaries win over poor people by giving them gifts at a time of vulnerability, only to convert them and turn them into political vote bank.” self there is no indivisible self in a computer system. There are two schools of thought: consciousness is everything; another thought is material is everything. Humanism is the worship of humans. Liberalism denies transcendental intelligence. “Postmodernism serves as a handmaiden for the demise of humanism at the hand of intelligent machines.” (Page 232) life span extension will become a matter of replacing, repairing, or re-growing any malfunctioning part. india the problems of unemployment and inequalities are challenges for india. India’s big data assets are being siphoned off by foreign social media giants. Politicians, bureaucrats, and industrialists are ignorant and silent. Indian it people are the labor class who build intellectual property rights for others. India will continue to export raw labor and import the finished technology. Niti aayog’s ai strategies are rudimentary, marginal, and too weak. India’s education system is uncompetitive. Internet, mobile telephones, and social media were pioneered by western firms. The technology used in the networks is largely us and european, and the handsets are mainly chinese. This highlights the failure of domestic technology developers and just users of foreign technology. “India is neither nimble enough nor adequately prepared, to navigate through the rapidly changing technological landscape.” (Page 298) indians feel proud of being included in this new world order in the subordinate place. Indian public life is like a tamasha. Instead of intellectual engagement, there are shouting matches, which are mistaken for democracy, development, and global superpower status. There is a deep interiority complex, self-loathing, and insecurity. Aspirations are raised among youth giving the impression that india is a superpower. “This is a dangerous cocktail: overemotional, overconfident, aggressive, and marginally educated people with a false sense of entitlement demanding instant gratification.” (Page 346) according to the author, evangelists, islamists, and maoists are enemies, they will be empowered by surveillance of ai platforms and will be involved in psychological manipulation. an interesting parable a contractor recruits a mason from bihar to work at a construction site in delhi. The mason does not even own a single brick in that project. After the completion of the project, they have to seek the next job. Their labor does not translate into equity or long-term security. But the contractor makes a handsome profit. It looks promising as the mason could send home money, support their family, and have new consumer goods. India’s software is also similarly based on labor arbitrage with foreign clients. The middlemen sold cheap it labor to foreign companies. the author fails to see the caste system that denied equality, access, and even rights to hold wealth as evil for people like the mason from bihar but describes indian it laborers as victims. the future of ai india is in ninth position in terms of ai. Most tech companies have moved to an ai-first approach instead of mobile mobile-first approach. Ai is moving towards specialized hardware; the general-purpose hardware is no longer adequate. The us also leads in semiconductor technology. All amazon has done is to increase a greater number of cyber-coolies. The ai-driven economy is not supported by the education system. India focuses on manufacturing, in which jobs will be replaced by ai. Other emerging technologies: 5 g, nanotechnology, semiconductors, and biotechnology. The ai revolution would be more drastic than the industrial revolution of the nineteenth century and the information technology revolution in the 2000s. Ai-based technology gains are likely to benefit only a select few indians. national stability according to the author: “ai could be used in positive ways to tighten the grip on volatile situations. The widespread use of law enforcement and propagation of the grand narrative could make ai a force for national stability.” (Page 360) the author is against the deep and broad influence of western universalism. If ai is trained in western universalism, it will be biased. For example, human rights is a universal idea endorsed by the united nations. Such ideas should not be imposed. China rejects such and has its own definition. tough governance lord ram failed to convince ravana by using soft power and had to use hard power. Sri krishna tried hard to use soft power arguments to win over duryodhana, but had to advocate hard power. “Indian spiritualists and political leaders should understand this and stop overplaying soft power hand. It has made indian society wooly-headed and lazy, and caused the kshatriyata to atrophy.” (Page 376) conclusion the book brings to focus the emerging ai technology and its impact on individuals, societies, and nations. The author laments that india is losing out on this technological progress. There is no information or suggestions on how ai could be used to bring equality, fraternity, justice, love, and service to all. #jnmanokaran #bookreview #artificialintelligence
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