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    Home / College Guide / Science X Newsletter Wednesday, Jun 22
     Posted on Thursday, June 23 @ 00:00:04 PDT
    College

    Dear Zicutake USA Comment, Here is your customized Science X Newsletter for June 22, 2022: Spotlight Stories Headlines [Nanotechnology news] [Tiny fish-shaped robot swims around picking up microplastics] Microplastics are found nearly everywhere on Earth and can be harmful to animals if theyre ingested. But its hard to remove such tiny particles from the environment, especially once they settle into nooks and crannies at the bottom of waterways. Now, researchers in ACS Nano Letters have created a light-activated fish robot that swims around quickly, picking up and removing microplastics from the environment. [2D interfaces in future transistors may not be as flat as previously thought] Transistors are the building blocks of modern electronics, used in everything from televisions to laptops. As transistors have gotten smaller and more compact, so have electronics, which is why your cell phone is a super powerful computer that fits in the palm of your hand. [The secret of cell growth could be in yo-yo and gear-like tendencies] Cells, the most basic units of life that form all living organisms, have long guarded their secrets, but now an international team from the University of Sydney, ETH Zurich and the University of Basel has uncovered some of their secrets through the development of a world-first technique.

    [Using microbrewery waste to synthesize carbon quantum dots] For a few years now, spent grain, the cereal residue from breweries, has been reused in animal feed. This material could also be used in nanotechnology. Professor Federico Roseis team at the Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS) has shown that microbrewery waste can be used as a carbon source to synthesize quantum dots. The work, done in collaboration with Claudiane Ouellet-Plamondon of the École de technologie supérieure (ÉTS), was published in the Royal Society of Chemistrys journal RSC Advances. [Technique allows researchers to align gold nanorods using magnetic fields] An international team of researchers has demonstrated a technique that allows them to align gold nanorods using magnetic fields, while preserving the underlying optical properties of the gold nanorods. [Scientists observe longitudinal plasmonic field in nanocavity at subnano-scale] A group of scientists working on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has made a nanoruler to provide insight into the longitudinal plasmonic fields in nanocavities, according to research published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society. [Fishing for toxic contaminants using superparamagnetic nanoparticles] Once a water source is contaminated, it can be costly and difficult to remediate.

    Natural remedies can take hundreds of years and still may not successfully remove all the dangerous contaminants. When it comes to global public health issues such as this, the need for new and safe solutions is urgent. John Fortner is designing solutions from scratch to do just that. [Physics news] [New ultrathin capacitor could enable energy-efficient microchips] The silicon-based computer chips that power our modern devices require vast amounts of energy to operate. Despite ever-improving computing efficiency, information technology is projected to consume around 25% of all primary energy produced by 2030. Researchers in the microelectronics and materials sciences communities are seeking ways to sustainably manage the global need for computing power. [Majorana fermions hold potential for information technology with zero resistance] A new, multi-node FLEET review, published in Matter, investigates the search for Majorana fermions in iron-based superconductors. [Following ultrafast magnetization dynamics in depth] The future development of functional magnetic devices based on ultrafast optical manipulation of spins requires an understanding of the depth-dependent spin dynamics across the interfaces of complex magnetic heterostructures.

    A novel technique to obtain such an in depth and time-resolved view on the magnetization has now been demonstrated at the Max Born Institute in Berlin, employing broadband femtosecond soft X-ray pulses to study the transient evolution of magnetization depth profiles within a magnetic thin film system. [Chicago Quantum Exchange takes first steps toward a future that could revolutionize computing and medicine] Flashes of what may become a transformative new technology are coursing through a network of optic fibers under Chicago. [Theoretical calculations predicted now-confirmed tetraneutron, an exotic state of matter] James Vary has been waiting for nuclear physics experiments to confirm the reality of a tetraneutron that he and his colleagues theorized, predicted and first announced during a presentation in the summer of 2014, followed by a research paper in the fall of 2016. [Researchers derive new theory on behavior of new class of materials] Researchers led by CEE Professor Oscar Lopez-Pamies have derived the governing equations that describe and explain the macroscopic mechanical behavior of elastomers filled with liquid inclusions directly in terms of their microscopic behavior.

    The work is described in an article by Lopez-Pamies and Ph.D. student Kamalendu Ghosh recently published in the Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids. [Scientists poke holes in liquid to keep airplanes from freezing on a rainy day] Droplets hitting aircraft plating can break the protective film of anti-icing fluid, leaving behind dry spots susceptible to hazardous freezing. In a similar way, lubricated parts in an industrial machine can lose their protection from friction if falling droplets poke holes in the film. Published in Fluids, the latest installment in a series of studies with showy slo-mo experiments by Skoltech researchers and their colleague from York University revisits this process, this time turning from water to more viscous fluids. The findings are important for improving anti-icing treatment and lubrication protocols. [Versatile optical technique for unveiling thermophysical properties of complex fluids] Nanofluids (NFs) have been found to possess enhanced thermophysical properties compared to those of bare fluids like organic solvents or water. Since the first study was published in 1951, NFs have emerged as promising heat transport fluids with enhanced thermal conductivity in a wide range of technological applications, e.

    g., electronic cooling, solar water heating devices, nuclear reactors, radiators. Therefore, the precise characterizations of surface and bulk thermophysical properties of an NF are indispensable to calibrating them and predicting their capabilities. [Researchers develop a low-background neutron detector array] A research team from the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), together with their collaborators from Sichuan University and Chinese Institute of Atomic Energy, has recently developed a high-efficiency low-background neutron detector array, which is essential for the precise cross-section measurement of the 13C(?,n)16O reaction at stellar energies in China JinPing underground Laboratory (CJPL). [Researchers investigate intricacies in superconductors with hopes to support quantum computer development] Ryan Day studies superconductors. Materials that conduct electricity perfectly, losing no energy to heat and resistance. Specifically, the University of California, Berkeley scientist studies how superconductors can coexist with their opposites; insulating materials that stop the flow of electrons. [High performance integrated photonic circuit based on inverse design method] A new publication from Opto-Electronic Advances discusses high performance integrated photonic-circuit-based on inverse design method.

    [Transmission photometry for simultaneous optogenetic stimulation and multi-color neuronal activity recording] A new publication from Opto-Electronic Advances discusses all-fiber transmission photometry for simultaneous optogenetic stimulation and multi-color neuronal activity recording. [Earth news] [Europe wildfire risk heightened by early heat waves, drought] Extended drought conditions in several Mediterranean countries, a heat wave last week that reached northern Germany and high fuel costs for aircraft needed to fight wildfires have heightened concerns across Europe this summer. [European map of aerosol pollution can help improve human health] Researchers have measured the composition of fine dust at 22 locations in Europe. The result of this international study, led by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, is a European map of the most important aerosol sources. The researchers have now published their findings in the journal Environment International. [Side benefits of climate action may save millions of lives in Africa] Moving from fossil fuels to clean energy sources comes with many side benefits, including a reduction in air pollution, which is responsible for premature deaths of 8–10 million people around the world.

    [Great Lakes levels are likely to see continued rise in next three decades] The Great Lakes in the Midwest U.S. comprise the largest unfrozen freshwater stores on Earth. But too much of a good thing can create problems. New research using the most advanced regional climate modeling systems finds that the baseline lake level for Lake Superior, Michigan-Huron and Erie are expected to rise by roughly 20 to 50 centimeters by 2050 as a result of climate change. [Cement carbon dioxide emissions quietly double in 20 years] Heat trapping carbon dioxide emissions from making cement, a less talked about but major source of carbon pollution, have doubled in the last 20 years, new global data shows. [How is pharmaceutical pollution affecting the worlds rivers?] During their production, use, and disposal, pharmaceutical ingredients in prescription and over-the-counter drugs are released into the environment, especially in surface waters. Results from a recent study published in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry indicate that pharmaceutical pollution is a global problem that is likely negatively affecting the health of the worlds rivers. [At least 1,000 killed in Afghan quake, with fear toll will rise] A powerful earthquake jolted a remote border region of Afghanistan overnight killing at least 1,000 people and injuring 1,500 more, officials said Wednesday, with the toll expected to rise as desperate rescuers dig through collapsed dwellings.

    [Warming climate upends Arctic mining town] Tor Selnes owes his life to a lamp. He miraculously survived a fatal avalanche that shed light on the vulnerability of Svalbard, a region warming faster than anywhere else, to human-caused climate change. [Climate change a factor in unprecedented South Asia floods] Scientists say climate change is a factor behind the erratic and early rains that triggered unprecedented floods in Bangladesh and northeastern India, killing dozens and making lives miserable for millions of others. [Wildfire threatens unspoiled Georgia island rich in history] Wildfires sparked by lightning have scorched hundreds of acres on this unspoiled island off the Georgia coast, where crews are battling to protect plantation ruins, the remnants of a 16th century Spanish mission and archaeological sites that have yielded human artifacts thousands of years old. [Astronomy and Space news] [A long history of flowing water recorded in clay-bearing sediments on Mars] A region on Mars may have been repeatedly habitable until relatively late in Martian history, says a new paper by Planetary Science Institute Senior Scientist Catherine Weitz. [Scientists map sulfur residue on Jupiters icy moon Europa] A Southwest Research Institute-led team used the Hubble Space Telescope to observe Jupiters moon, Europa, at ultraviolet wavelengths, filling in a gap in the various wavelengths used to observe this icy water world.

    The teams near-global UV maps show concentrations of sulfur dioxide on Europas trailing side. [Projected increase in space travel may damage ozone layer] Projected growth in rocket launches for space tourism, moon landings, and perhaps travel to Mars has many dreaming of a new era of space exploration. But a NOAA study suggests that a significant boost in spaceflight activity may damage the protective ozone layer on the one planet where we live. [A flicker from the dark: Reading between the lines to model our galaxys central black hole] Looks can be deceiving. The light from an incandescent bulb seems steady, but it flickers 120 times per second. Because the brain only perceives an average of the information it receives, this flickering is blurred and the perception of constant illumination is a mere illusion. [Curiosity captures stunning views of a changing Mars landscape] For the past year, NASAs Curiosity Mars rover has been traveling through a transition zone from a clay-rich region to one filled with a salty mineral called sulfate. While the science team targeted the clay-rich region and the sulfate-laden one for evidence each can offer about Mars watery past, the transition zone is proving to be scientifically fascinating as well.

    In fact, this transition may provide the record of a major shift in Mars climate billions of years ago that scientists are just beginning to understand. [Software upgrade for 19-year-old martian water-spotter] The MARSIS instrument on ESAs Mars Express spacecraft, famous for its role in the discovery of signs of liquid water on the Red Planet, is receiving a major software upgrade that will allow it to see beneath the surfaces of Mars and its moon Phobos in more detail than ever before. [Modeling electrolyte transport in water-rich exoplanets] Oceans on water-rich exoplanets may be enriched with electrolytes, including salts such as sodium chloride, suggests a modeling study published in Nature Communications. The research proposes electrolytes can be transported from the rocky core of these planets and may have implications for the potential habitability of these ocean worlds. [How you can help scientists study the atmosphere on Jupiter] A new citizen science project, led by researchers at the University of Minnesota Twin Cities with support from NASA, allows volunteers to play an important role in helping scientists learn more about the atmosphere on Jupiter. Citizen scientists can help astrophysicists categorize tens of thousands of stunning images taken from the Juno spacecraft with just a web browser.

    [No need to panic as sunspot with potential for solar flares doubles in size overnight, scientists say] A sunspot pointing toward Earth has the potential to cause solar flares, but experts told USA TODAY its far from unusual and eased concerns over how flares would affect the Blue Planet. [NASAs Webb to uncover riches of the early universe] For decades, telescopes have helped us capture light from galaxies that formed as far back as 400 million years after the big bang—incredibly early in the context of the universes 13.8-billion-year history. But what were galaxies like that existed even earlier, when the universe was semi-transparent at the beginning of a period known as the Era of Reionization? NASAs next flagship observatory, the James Webb Space Telescope, is poised to add new riches to our wealth of knowledge not only by capturing images from galaxies that existed as early as the first few hundred million years after the big bang, but also by giving us detailed data known as spectra. With Webbs observations, researchers will be able to tell us about the makeup and composition of individual galaxies in the early universe for the first time. [NASA announces Artemis concept awards for nuclear power on moon] NASA and the U.

    S. Department of Energy (DOE) are working together to advance space nuclear technologies. The agencies have selected three design concept proposals for a fission surface power system design that could be ready to launch by the end of the decade for a demonstration on the moon. This technology would benefit future exploration under the Artemis umbrella. [Space chief hopes for Kennedy moment from European leaders] Josef Aschbacher recalls gazing at the night sky above his parents Alpine farm when he was seven, trying to comprehend what he had just seen on the familys black-and-white TV set: the landing of NASAs Apollo 11 on the Moon. [Technology news] [A deep learning framework to estimate the pose of robotic arms and predict their movements] As robots are gradually introduced into various real-world environments, developers and roboticists will need to ensure that they can safely operate around humans. In recent years, they have introduced various approaches for estimating the positions and predicting the movements of robots in real-time. [Learning motifs and their hierarchies in atomic-resolution microscopy] National University of Singapore researchers have developed a machine-learning scheme that rapidly identifies previously unseen novel structures in disordered materials without human supervision.

    Their study was published in Science Advances. [Can robotics help us achieve sustainable development?] An international team of scientists, led by the University of Leeds, have assessed how robotics and autonomous systems might facilitate or impede the delivery of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). [A simple tool to make websites more secure and curb hacking] An international team of researchers has developed a scanning tool to make websites less vulnerable to hacking and cyberattacks. [First organic bipolar transistor developed] The invention of the transistor in 1947 by Shockley, Bardeen and Brattain at Bell Laboratories ushered in the age of microelectronics and revolutionized our lives. First, so-called bipolar transistors were invented, in which negative and positive charge carriers contribute to the current transport; unipolar field effect transistors were only added later. The increasing performance due to the scaling of silicon electronics in the nanometer range has immensely accelerated the processing of data. However, this very rigid technology is less suitable for new types of flexible electronic components, such as rollable TV displays or medical applications.

    [Team develops biobatteries that use bacteria to generate power for weeks] As our tech needs grow and the Internet of Things increasingly connects our devices and sensors together, figuring out how to provide power in remote locations has become an expanding field of research. [Spain bets on green hydrogen in clean energy push] As Europe seeks to move way from fossil fuels, Spain is racing ahead in developing green hydrogen, aided by a growing wind and solar power complex in efforts to decarbonise its economy. [We need to simplify the chemistry industry to make it sustainable] Like many industries, the chemical industry needs to become more sustainable and, among other things, reduce its carbon footprint. But the situation is particularly complicated in the chemical industry, because in addition to its carbon or climate footprint, its toxicity footprint is also significant. This represents the toxic effects of chemicals released from chemical production processes and from chemical products. Examples of such substances are perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and its alternative product, GenX, which are used in the production of fluoropolymers such as Teflon, as well as plasticizers and UV absorbers for plastics, flame retardants, or UV filters in sun creams.

    [How are recycled garments made? And why is recycling them further so hard?] Today we make more clothing than ever before. And the driver for this is primarily economic, rather than human need. Over the past decade, the term circular economy has entered the fashion industry lexicon, wherein materials are made to be reused and recycled by design. [Levelling up: Why Netflix and TikTok are turning to gaming to secure their future] The streaming wars are heating up. In March, Disney delayed the release date of Obi-Wan Kenobi to May 27 to coincide with the launch of Netflixs top show, Stranger Things. This on the back of Googles announcement YouTube Shorts had matched TikToks 1.5 billion subscribers in the short-form video market. [Electric cars: Its not just about the battery, its an energy issue, too] Soaring fuel prices are pushing more Australians than ever to consider electric vehicles. Modern electric cars can drive for hundreds of kilometers, with short charge times that align perfectly with a coffee break on longer trips. [Scams and cryptocurrency can go hand in hand. How they work and what to watch out for] When one of our students told us they were going to drop out of college in August 2021, it wasnt the first time wed heard of someone ending their studies prematurely.

    [California does not need to choose between post-pandemic economic growth and reducing carbon emissions] Surprisingly, environmental leader California has a smaller green economy than the average U.S. state and would need to add many thousands of environmentally friendly jobs to catch up. The good news is its on track to do just that, according to a new analysis released today by the UCR School of Business Center for Economic Forecasting and Development. [Google agrees to pay for beefed-up Wikipedia service] Google has agreed to pay for ramped-up Wikipedia services, part of a growing trend for the US tech giant to strike commercial deals with other web companies. [Nanostructured surfaces for future quantum computer chips] Quantum computers are one of the key future technologies of the 21st century. Researchers at Paderborn University, working under Professor Thomas Zentgraf and in cooperation with colleagues from the Australian National University and Singapore University of Technology and Design, have developed a new technology for manipulating light that can be used as a basis for future optical quantum computers. The results have now been published in Nature Photonics. [Method for creating 3D integrated circuit connections at low temperatures that does not require external pressures] Scientists from the Flexible 3D-System Integration Laboratory at Osaka University developed a new method for the direct three-dimensional bonding of copper electrodes using silver, which can reduce the cost and energy requirements of new electronic devices.

    This work may help in the design of next-generation smart devices that are more compact and use less electricity. [Startup using microorganisms to make green cement] A Colorado company is channeling the industriousness of microorganisms to grow zero-carbon cement in a process that is similar to the way corals build reefs or oysters produce shells. [Researchers create artificial intelligence-aided railroad trespassing detection tool] A pair of Rutgers engineers have developed a tool aided by artificial intelligence to detect trespassing on railroad crossings and curb fatalities that have been increasing over the past decade. [Potential market for liquid hydrogen as a marine fuel in the Aleutian Islands] As interest grows in the potential of using green hydrogen generated from renewable electricity to help decarbonize maritime shipping, a new study from the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) estimates there could be substantial demand for liquid hydrogen (LH2) at the Aleutian Islands ports in Alaska, including 10,000 tons annually from ships that already call on Dutch Harbor. [Sniffing out your identity with breath biometrics] Biometric authentication like fingerprint and iris scans are a staple of any spy movie, and trying to circumvent those security measures is often a core plot point.

    But these days the technology is not limited to spies, as fingerprint verification and facial recognition are now common features on many of our phones. [Ford pledges to work with community near future factory] Ford Motor Co. officials on Tuesday pledged to be good neighbors to those in rural west Tennessee who live near the automakers planned electric truck factory, a project expected to create thousands of jobs and change the face of the region. [California may make social media firms report enforcement] Social media companies would have to make public their policies for removing problem content and give detailed accounts of how and when they remove it, under a proposal being considered by California legislators who blame online chatter for encouraging violence and undermining democracy. [Air tickets set to keep climbing from pandemic low: experts] Propelled by inflation, the price of air tickets has begun to take off again after tumbling during the pandemic, a reversal that looks set to intensify due to environmental pressures, experts say. [How Dutch houses can become almost energy- and CO2-neutral] How much energy and greenhouse gas emissions can Dutch homes save? Xining Yang uses Leiden as an example and shows with his research how enormous the impact can be.

    At least, if we work harder on becoming more sustainable. Based on the models he developed, Yang will receive his doctorate on 28 June. [Should you take your consumer gripe to the Better Business Bureau or Twitter?] Is the Better Business Bureau still relevant to consumers in an age of almost instant response on social media platforms like Twitter and Instagram? [California drought: Smart water meters coming to San Jose, other Bay Area cities] Youve got a smartphone. Maybe a smartwatch. Or even a smart doorbell. [American Airlines testing face-scanning at DFW Airport] American Airlines said Wednesday that customers with PreCheck can go through security checkpoints at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport with a face scan and phone app instead of showing their drivers license or passport. [Chemistry news] [Upcycling plastics through dynamic cross-linking] If bioengineers can upcycle commodity plastics into higher-performance materials, they can establish sustained closed-loop manufacturing with broader industrial and environmental benefits. For example, upcycled plastics can be reprocessed to form custom-designed structures via an energy-resource-efficient additive manufacturing circuit based on fused filament fabrication (the FFF method).

    In a new report now published in Science Advances, Sungjin Kim and a team of researchers in chemistry, materials science and interdisciplinary research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Tennessee, U.S., introduced a circular model to upcycle a prominent thermoplastic known as acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). The team upcycled the material into a recyclable and robust covalent network, reprintable via fused filament fabrication. The process overcame major challenges of reprinting cross-linked materials to produce strong, tough and solvent-resistant 3D objects separate from unsorted plastic waste. The outcomes provide an adaptable approach for advanced manufacture of circular plastics. [New gel protects eggs—and maybe someday, heads—from damage] Humpty Dumpty, the famous egg of nursery rhyme fame, fell off a wall and couldnt be put back together again. But if hed worn a protective jacket made of gelatin and cornstarch, he could have stayed intact. Researchers in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces report that by adding starch to gelatin, they have created gels that protect fragile objects, such as eggs—and maybe someday, peoples heads. [Researchers discover a new receptor regulating sebaceous gland progenitor cell function] Stem cells and progenitor cells play an important role in the renewal of multiple tissues.

    Professor Jyrki Heinos research group from the University of Turku together and Professor Fiona Watt´s research group from Kings College London have discovered a molecule called embigin on the surface of epithelia progenitor cells and proven its significance to sebaceous gland function. [Improving the future of purification by using molecular silhouette to separate compounds in fluids] Impure chemical mixtures can now be separated based on differences in molecular silhouette. Membranes have been developed with nanoscale pores that match the shape of impurities in the mix so that only the impurity can pass through. KAUST researchers have suggested that the first application of these metal-organic framework (MOF) based shape-selective membranes could be energy-efficient, low-cost purification of natural gas. [Organ storage a step closer with cryopreservation discovery] Australian scientists have taken the first step towards improved storage of human cells, which may lead to the safe storage of organs such as hearts and lungs. [Process to customize molecules does double duty] Inspired by your liver and activated by light, a chemical process developed in labs at Rice University and in China shows promise for drug design and the development of unique materials.

    [Human cells take in less protein from a plant-based meat than from chicken] Many people have now embraced the plant-based meat movement. Plants high in protein, such as soybeans, are common ingredients, but its been unclear how much of the nutrient makes it into human cells. In ACS Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, researchers report that proteins in a model plant-based substitute were not as accessible to cells as those from meat. The team says this knowledge could eventually be used to develop more healthful products. [Biology news] [The secret lives of mites in the skin of our faces] Microscopic mites that live in human pores and mate on our faces at night are becoming such simplified organisms, due to their unusual lifestyles, that they may soon become one with humans, new research has found. [Babbling discovered in wild baby parrots] A team of researchers from the University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, working with colleagues from several research facilities in Venezuela, has found evidence of babbling in wild baby parrots. In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, the group describes the unique vocalizations of the baby birds, similar to human infants, and what they learned about the role of stress hormones in the development of their communication skills.

    [Bonobos tolerant, peaceful group relationships paved way for human peacemaking] Humans display a capacity for tolerance and cooperation among social groups that is rare in the animal kingdom, our long history of war and political strife notwithstanding. But how did we get that way? [What did Megalodon eat? Anything it wanted, including other predators] New Princeton research shows that prehistoric megatooth sharks—the biggest sharks that ever lived—were apex predators at the highest level ever measured. [Custom suits for worms that can deliver functional cargo] James Bonds legendary quartermaster Q provided the special agent with an endless array of tools and gadgets to help him accomplish his missions. Now, researchers from Japan have demonstrated equal prowess at equipping microscopic worms with a surprising arsenal of functional and protective factors. [Fertilization reshapes the tree-fungi relationship in boreal forests] How do nutritional changes affect the interaction between trees and soil microorganisms? This has long remained a black box but a new study has shed light onto this cryptic association. It shows that increased soil nutrition changes the communication between trees and their associated fungi, restructuring the root-associated fungal community with major implications for carbon cycling in the forest.

    [Infrared cameras show moths have a wide variety of coloring] A team of researchers working at Lund University in Sweden has found that despite their drab appearance in daylight, moths have a wide variety of bright coloring when viewed using an infrared camera. In their paper published in Journal of the Royal Society Interface, the group describes the interesting coloring of 82 moth specimens. [More than 100 fossils discovered in Brazilian paleontological site that was lost for 70 years] Paleontologists from three universities in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, found a fossiliferous site lost for more than 70 years near the city of Dom Pedrito, the heart of the Campanha region and a city that borders Uruguay. About 260 million years ago, even before the first dinosaurs, the ideal environmental conditions were present for the preservation of the organisms that inhabited this area in the past, which, through the fossil record, were protected in thin layers of rock and, now, little by little, they are being revealed. [New imaging technique drives biological molecules into technicolor] Pablo Picassos cubist artistic style shifted common features into unrecognizable scenes, but a new imaging approach bearing his namesake may elucidate the most complicated subject: the brain.

    Employing artificial intelligence to clarify spectral color blending of tiny molecules used to stain specific proteins and other items of research interest, the PICASSO technique, allows researchers to use more than 15 colors to image and parse our overlapping proteins. [The importance of large pieces of wood in streams for land-based animals] Land managers have invested millions of dollars annually since the 1980s to place large pieces of wood back in streams, owing primarily to its importance for fish habitat. But little is known about how large wood in streams impacts birds and land-based animals. [Using a locusts brain and antennae to detect mouth cancer] A team of researchers at Michigan State University has found a way to use a locusts brain and antennae to sniff out mouth cancer. Their work has not yet been peer-reviewed, but they have posted a paper describing their work on the bioRxiv preprint server. [Soil microbes return after replanting local native plants] Robust long-term ecosystem restoration relies not just on replanting native vegetation but on the recovery of underlying soil biodiversity—yet this area has received little attention and is poorly understood, Flinders University researchers say.

    [Tapping the ocean as a source of natural products] The oceans are teeming with countless forms of life, from the worlds largest creature—the blue whale—to miniscule microorganisms. In addition to their vast numbers, these microorganisms are also crucial for ensuring that the entire eco- and climate system work properly. For instance, there are photosynthetically active varieties such as cyanobacteria that produce around 50 percent of the oxygen in the atmosphere. Moreover, by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, microorganisms help counter global warming. [Tree species diversity under pressure] In a new global study of more than 46,000 species of trees, an international team of researchers has shown that many tree species are under substantial pressure and poorly protected. The research team, headed by Aarhus University, has also studied how this situation can be improved by means of ambitious and smart designation of new protected natural areas. [Can we save more lives if we let resistant bacteria live?] Antibiotic resistance is a ticking timebomb under public health. The WHO predicts that in 2050 more people will die from infections than from cancer—and we are talking about infections that we today consider harmless; infections that occur in a cut or wound—or perhaps cystitis.

    [Virtual reality gives humans a turtles-eye view of wildlife] A virtual reality simulation designed by a University of Oregon (UO) professor could help spur people to environmental action. [Where once were black boxes, a new statistical tool illuminates] Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed a new statistical tool that they have used to predict protein function. Not only could it help with the difficult job of altering proteins in practically useful ways, but it also works by methods that are fully interpretable—an advantage over the conventional artificial intelligence (AI) that has aided with protein engineering in the past. [Is Migaloo dead? As climate change transforms the ocean, the iconic white humpback has been missing for two years] Its that time of year again, when the humpback highway is about to hit peak blubber to blubber as humpback whales migrate up Australias east and west coasts from Antarctic waters. [Discovering new plant and fungi species] There is so much we still dont know about native species in Australia and New Zealand. Best estimates suggest that we have yet to discover and name some 70% of the life living around us.

    [After decades of loss, the worlds largest mangrove forests are set for a comeback] Mangroves ring the shores of many of Indonesias more than 17,000 islands. But in the most populated areas, the worlds largest mangrove forests have been steadily whittled away, and with them, the ability to store blue carbon. [Deletion of Wt1 gene produces alterations in the reproductive organs of mice] The deletion of the Wt1 gene during the early stages of the embryonic reproductive organ formation leads to differences in sex development in adult mice, according to an article published in the journal PLOS Genetics and led by the lecturer Ofelia Martínez-Estrada, from the Faculty of Biology and the Biomedicine Research Institute (IRBio) of the UB. [Grape growers are adapting to climate shifts early, and their knowledge can help other farmers] Its commonly assumed Australias farmers and cities are divided over climate issues. This is not true. After all, farmers are on the front line and face the realities of our shifting climate on a daily basis. [Citizen scientists from three continents help discover a new, giant slug from Europe] You might think that Europe is so well studied that no large animals remain undiscovered.

    Yet today, a new species of giant keelback slug from Montenegro was announced in the open-access Biodiversity Data Journal. The animal, as big as a medium-sized carrot, was discovered on a citizen-science expedition and jointly described by its participants. [Novel chromosome engineering materials provide resistance to Ug99 for wheat breeders] In a recent study published online in Theoretical and Applied Genetics, Dr. Han Fangpus group from the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has reported the establishment of new wheat-rye addition lines that conferred resistance to Ug99. [Track-and-trace method predicts best possible resolution in microscopy] TU Delft scientists provide insight into the limitations of super-resolution microscopy and offer a new calculation method to determine maximum resolution. The technology is important for studying processes in the living cell, discovering the origin of diseases and developing new medicines. Their findings were published in the Biophysical Journal. [Chromosomal errors that develop early lead to embryonic loss in assisted reproductive technology] Assisted reproductive technology, known as ART, is the umbrella term to describe fertility treatments that involve eggs and embryos.

    Many people turn to ART techniques like in vitro fertilization to resolve fertility problems, but this is an expensive process that can have a low success rate. [New study highlights challenges to pumpkin and watermelon production in Uganda] A new study published in the CABI Agriculture and Bioscience journal highlights that pests, diseases, and drought, are the main challenges to pumpkin and watermelon production in Uganda. [Unselective fishing could reduce fish diversity and homogenize assemblage structure in lakes] Freshwater fishing is recognized as a major stressor on aquatic ecosystems, often leading to dramatic changes in the structure of natural populations. Fishing in inland freshwaters typically takes two forms: intensive fishing of targeted species and unselective fishing of entire assemblages. [Examining the zoonotic disease risk to non-traditional pet owners] Contact with non-traditional pets increases the risk of exposure to zoonotic pathogens, which are pathogens that spread between animals and people. The National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, together with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, examine the threat to pet owners and provide recommendations for prevention in an article published in Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases.

    [Maine wild blueberry fields experience warming differently depending on location, season, time, study finds] The location, season and the time of day influence how fast temperatures are rising at Maine wild blueberry fields due to climate change, according to a new University of Maine study. [LA needs 90,000 trees to battle extreme heat. Will residents step up to plant them?] In 2019, Mayor Eric Garcetti unveiled an ambitious plan to plant 90,000 trees in Los Angeles by 2021 as part of L.A.s Green New Deal. [Collecting a library of bee genomes] The USDA Agricultural Research Service is leading a project dubbed Beenome100 to produce high-quality maps of the genomes of at least 100 bee species, capturing the diversity of bees in the United States, representing each of the major bee taxonomic groups in this country. [Offshore wind farms expected to reduce clam fishery revenue, study finds] An important East Coast shellfish industry is projected to suffer revenue losses as offshore wind energy develops along the U.S. Northeast and Mid-Atlantic coasts, according to two Rutgers studies. [French co-discoverer of Lucy dies at 87] French paleontologist Yves Coppens, credited with the co-discovery of the famous fossil find known as Lucy, died on Wednesday aged 87 after a long illness, his publisher said.

    [Researchers consider invisible hurdles in digital agriculture design] When Gloire Rubambiza was installing a digital agriculture system at the Cornell Orchards and greenhouses, he encountered a variety of problems, including connectivity and compatibility issues, and equipment frozen under snow. [Research team documents first crows to survive deadly West Nile virus] West Nile virus may no longer be a death sentence to crows. In a new study from the Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, wildlife experts describe successfully treating and releasing five American crows infected with the deadly disease—the first known crows to survive West Nile virus. [Timing is everything for weed management] Farmers can tailor their efforts to control weeds more effectively by pinpointing when a particular weed will emerge, according to a new Cornell University study. [Florida team hauls in 18-foot, 215-pound Burmese python] A team of biologists recently hauled in the heaviest Burmese python ever captured in Florida, officials said. [Study provides insights into how cold-adapted species respond to climate change] By analyzing historical data generated during and between ice ages, investigators have identified different mechanisms used by cold-adapted Arctic mammalian species to respond to severe climate fluctuations.

    [Large-scale cultivation of microalgae can clean emissions from industry, can also be used in Nordic climate] Microalgae can recover greenhouse gases and nutrients from industrial waste. This technology can be used to reduce climate footprint and eutrophication. Lina Mattssons dissertation in ecology shows that microalgae can also be used in the Nordic climate, which has previously been considered a challenge as the algae are dependent on heat and sunlight. [Study highlights undiscovered potential of bacterial compounds and genes linked to colon cancer-related toxin] The last two decades have seen the development of sophisticated computational tools that explore the DNA of bacteria. These tools are on the lookout for interesting metabolites (metabolism-related molecules) that illicit a strong biological reaction. Their impact might be toxic, or it might be life enhancing; for example, informing the development of new antibiotics, anti-cancer drugs or bio-based insecticides for use in agriculture. [Medicine and Health news] [Typhoid-causing bacteria have become more resistant to essential antibiotics, spreading widely over past 30 years] Bacteria causing typhoid fever are becoming increasingly resistant to some of the most important antibiotics for human health, according to a study published in The Lancet Microbe journal.

    The largest genome analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi (S. typhi) also reveals that resistant strains—almost all originating in South Asia—have spread to other countries nearly 200 times since 1990. [Inability to stand on one leg for 10 seconds in mid to later life linked to near doubling in risk of death] The inability to stand on one leg for 10 seconds in mid- to later life is linked to a near doubling in the risk of death from any cause within the next 10 years, finds research published online in the British Journal of Sports Medicine. [There is no safest spot to minimize risk of COVID-19 transmission on trains] Researchers have demonstrated how airborne diseases such as COVID-19 spread along the length of a train carriage and found that there is no safest spot for passengers to minimize the risk of transmission. [Reducing air pollution can support healthy brain development, study finds] A new study finds that having a portable air cleaner in the home can reduce the negative impacts of air pollution on brain development in children. [Plant virus plus immune cell-activating antibody clear colon cancer in mice, prevent recurrence] A new combination therapy to combat cancer could one day consist of a plant virus and an antibody that activates the immune systems natural killer cells, shows a study by researchers at the University of California San Diego.

    [Uncovering links between grit and cognitive function] A new analysis of the personality trait of grit found that people who showed higher levels of grit also had different patterns of cognitive performance—but not necessarily enhanced cognitive performance. Nuria Aguerre of the University of Granada, Spain, and colleagues present these findings in the open-access journal PLOS ONE on June 22, 2022. [Big step in rapid diagnostics for infectious diseases] The speedy, high-tech method of inexpensive, accurate and high-throughput protein biomarker assay testing is being touted as a much-needed development in point-of-care (PoC) testing, say U.S. and Flinders University researchers who specialize in green vortex fluidic device (VFD) medical applications. [Calcium channel blockers may improve chemotherapy response] Calcium channel blockers may improve treatment for pancreatic cancer patients receiving gemcitabine-based chemotherapy, according to recent findings published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. [Biomarkers found that could be drug targets against a deadly form of brain cancer] Biomarkers that could be targets for novel drugs to treat glioblastoma brain tumors have been identified by investigators at Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, providing hope for a cancer that is highly lethal.

    [Breast cancer spreads at night: Surprising findings from cancer research] Breast cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Each year, around 2.3 million people worldwide contract the disease. If doctors detect breast cancer early enough, patients usually respond well to treatment. However, things become much more difficult if the cancer has already metastasized. Metastasis occurs when circulating cancer cells break away from the original tumor, travel through the body via blood vessels and form new tumors in other organs. [How the astrocytic urea cycle in the brain controls memory impairment in Alzheimers disease] The number of elderly suffering from Alzheimers disease has been rapidly rising over the past decades. For a long time, scientists believed that misfolded aggregates of amyloid-beta protein accumulate and form plaques in the brain, leading to memory loss and neuronal death. However, the recent failures of the clinical trials indicate the pressing need to understand the missing link between amyloid-beta protein plaques and the diseases symptoms, a phenomenon that has been studied for over decades. [The pons-corticolimbic network plays a significant role in processing sad information] A research team led by Professor Tatia Lee, Director of the State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences of The University of Hong Kong (HKU), in collaboration with Professor Lin Chen of Chinese Academy of Sciences, conducted studies to explain the neural mechanisms of the pons-corticolimbic network in perpetuating sad mood in depression.

    The study findings were published in Communications Biology. [Pushing T cells down memory lane may improve cancer therapy] Scientists at St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital identified a molecular mechanism that in a preclinical study unlocked the promise of CAR T-cell therapy for treatment of solid tumors. The results were published today in the journal Nature. [New understanding of congenital heart disease progression opens door to improved treatment options] A team of investigators from Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Heart Institute and Texas Childrens Hospital uncovered new insights into the mechanisms underlying the progression of congenital heart disease (CHD)?a spectrum of heart defects that develop before birth and remain the leading cause of childhood death. [Increasing public health measures could have helped prevent thousands of COVID-19 deaths in India] Strengthening public health measures at the sign of resurgence of SARS-CoV-2 in India in early 2021 would have helped control transmission in the country and reduced mortality by at least 40% during the second wave even without harsh lockdowns, according to a new University of Michigan study. [Breast duct treatment for early breast cancer eliminates all signs of disease in laboratory experiments] Delivering a targeted immunotoxin into breast ducts via openings in the nipple wiped out all visible and invisible precancerous lesions in laboratory studies, led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, of very early stage breast cancers.

    [Untangling the role of tau in Alzheimers disease] Alzheimers disease is a brain disorder that causes neurons to die, slowly destroying memory and thinking skills. Its the most common type of dementia, impacting an estimated 50 million people worldwide, and is a particularly serious issue for Japans super-aged society. Despite its prevalence, the causes remain poorly understood and treatment options are limited. [Polio virus detected in London sewage samples: WHO, UK] A type of poliovirus derived from vaccines has been detected in London sewage samples, the World Health Organization and British health officials said Wednesday, adding that more analysis was underway. [Scientists identify sensor underlying mechanical itch stimulus] Scientists at Scripps Research Institute have identified a protein in sensory nerves that works as a key detector of itch—specifically the mechanical itch stimulus of crawling insects, wool fibers, or other irritating objects that touch the skin. [Researchers learn that ALS may be linked to both the immune and central nervous systems] The immune system may play a fundamental role along with the central nervous system in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrigs disease, Mount Sinai researchers report.

    Their study, published on June 22 in Nature, could have significant implications for diagnosing and treating the devastating neurodegenerative disease. [Researchers develop blood test to predict liver cancer risk] An estimated one-quarter of adults in the U.S. have nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), an excess of fat in liver cells that can cause chronic inflammation and liver damage, increasing the risk of liver cancer. Now, UT Southwestern researchers have developed a simple blood test to predict which NAFLD patients are most likely to develop liver cancer. [Study in mice describes how different cell types in the brain work together to suppress nausea] Nausea is a bit of a catchall sensation for the human body: the unpleasant sick feeling can hit us as a result of everything from pregnancy or a migraine to eating spoiled food or undergoing chemotherapy. [Feelings of detachment predict worse mental health outcomes after trauma] Results from the largest prospective study of its kind indicate that for individuals who experience trauma, the presence of dissociation—a profound feeling of detachment from ones sense of self or surroundings—may indicate a high risk of later developing severe post-traumatic stress, depression, anxiety, physical pain, and social impairment.

    The research, which was led by investigators at McLean Hospital, is published in the American Journal of Psychiatry. [New treatment option shows promise in clearing HPV infection] Daily use of a mushroom extract supported the immune system in clearing human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, according to researchers with UTHealth Houston. The study was published today in Frontiers in Oncology. [Cardiac rehab attendance lower among Asian, Black and Hispanic adults at all income levels] Participation in cardiac rehabilitation is low among Asian, Black and Hispanic adults compared to white adults, with significant disparities by race/ethnicity regardless of income, according to new research published today in the Journal of the American Heart Association. [Why monkeypox may soon get a new name] Monkeypox may soon have a new name after scientists called for a change to dispel stereotypes of Africa being seen as a crucible of disease. [AI analysis for a healthy eye] Eye doctors make use of advanced imaging techniques to assess the health of the cornea and retina in the eye. For example, high resolution images can be used to check how successful corneal transplantation surgery has been, or if the retina is showing early signs of type 2 diabetes.

    Detailed analysis of these images can take a lot of time, which is impractical in standard clinical practice given the urgency there can be with diagnosing a disease like diabetes. [Eye movements could be the missing link in our understanding of memory] Humans have a fascinating ability to recreate events in the minds eye, in exquisite detail. Over 50 years ago, Donald Hebb and Ulrich Neisser, the forefathers of cognitive psychology, theorized that eye movements are vital for our ability to do this. They pointed out we move our eyes not only to receive sensory visual input, but also to bring to mind information stored in memory. Our recent study provides the only academic evidence to date for their theory. [What are PFAS, and why is the EPA warning about them in drinking water? An environmental health scientist explains] PFAS? Whats PFAS? [Psychologists have traditionally focused on the past. What if thats all wrong?] For over a century, psychologists such as Sigmund Freud and Carl Rogers focused peoples attention on the past. And so when Mary struggles to maintain romantic relationships, she blames her past boyfriends for it. When Chris battles with addiction, he digs into his memories from childhood when he first felt humiliated.

    And when Saoirse doesnt want to settle down, she attributes her free-spirited nature to being the youngest child in her family. [Predictable and consistent parental behavior is key for optimal child brain development] Scientists have long known that the experiences you have during infancy and childhood play an important role in shaping how your brain matures and how you behave as an adult. But figuring out why this happens has been difficult. [COPD patients respond equally well to COVID-19 vaccine] A study that tested the immune response of COPD patients to COVID-19 vaccination has shown they respond in a similar way to healthy people. The findings by scientists from The University of Manchester and published as a research letter in the European Respiratory Journal are good news for patients with the common condition. [Researchers discover mechanisms of mugwort pollen allergy, first step toward vaccine] A research team at MedUni Vienna has discovered key mechanisms of allergy to pollen from the common weed mugwort, thereby also laying the foundation for the development of the worlds first vaccine. Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) poses a serious problem for allergic individuals in our latitudes from July through to September.

    Currently, the symptoms, which often lead to asthma, can only be treated symptomatically. The recent findings are an essential first step toward causal therapy and the prevention of mugwort pollen allergy. The landmark study has now been published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. [Kids neighborhoods can affect their developing brains, a new study finds] Children growing up in more disadvantaged neighborhoods—meaning those with poor housing quality, more poverty and lower levels of employment and education—show observable increases in brain activity when viewing emotional faces on a screen, according to our teams new study. But importantly, we found that this association was true only when the adults in those neighborhoods also did not have strong shared norms about preventing crime and violence. [Mental health services underused in aged care] Fewer than 3% of people with mental health conditions living in Australian residential aged care facilities accessed government-subsidized mental health services, a new analysis from Flinders University and the South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute (SAHMRI) has found, with calls for organizational and policy changes to improve access.

    [COVID-19 booster increases antibodies by more than 85% in nursing home residents and their caregivers] The pandemic has hit nursing home residents especially hard, with a disproportionately large share of COVID-19 infection and mortality rates in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). [Why does everyone seem to have food intolerances these days?] Most of you will have noticed hosting a dinner party is harder than it used to be. One friend is gluten-free, another is dairy-free, one cant eat onion and two more are vegetarian. Are food intolerances increasing? Or do we just hear more about them now? [Online yoga reduces stress, improves well-being] In this age of remote work, virtual meetings, and telemedicine visits, add yoga to the list of things you can do effectively without leaving home. [How digital tech can help people with asthma manage their meds and reduce the risk of attacks] Modern medical science has made remarkable progress in the treatment of asthma. Inhalers containing steroids are particularly effective in preventing an asthma attack. But getting people to take these preventive medicines long-term remains a challenge. [Understanding and reframing the fear of rejection] If theres one thing for sure, its that life doesnt always go our way.

    A rejection, no matter the circumstance or size, can be painful, but it is something we all experience at some stage in our lives. [COVID did not affect stroke patient care quality or outcomes in USs largest healthcare system] In one of the first studies to investigate the overall quality of care and outcomes of stroke care for non-COVID-19 hospitalized patients during the pandemic from a national U.S. perspective, researchers from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), Regenstrief Institute and Monash University assessed patients with strokes and transient ischemic attacks (often called mini-strokes or TIAs) in 128 hospitals across the U.S. in the VAs health system, the nations largest integrated healthcare system. The researchers report no decline in overall quality of care nor outcomes (after risk adjustment) when comparing patients with stroke and mini-strokes from prior to the pandemic [March to September 2019] to the same months during the pandemic [March to September 2020]. [How low testosterone can affect mens health] Millions of men live with a testosterone deficiency. If left unchecked, this treatable condition may contribute to serious health problems like osteoporosis and lowered red blood cell production.

    [PREPARE II trial results measure effectiveness of fluid bolus to prevent circulatory failure] New findings from University of Alabama at Birmingham researchers provide new details that may determine whether implementing a fluid bolus before tracheal intubations prevents circulatory failure. [Personalized maps created through artificial intelligence may guide individuals to improved well-being] Decades of longevity research have shown that psychological well-being is strongly tied to physical health, optimism, positive health behaviors, and lower risks of premature death. A team led by investigators at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Deep Longevity Limited recently used artificial intelligence to explore psychological well-being and to develop a framework for helping people improve their long-term life satisfaction. [Hormones linked with sleep apnea, snoring in postmenopausal women] Middle-aged women with low levels of estrogen and progesterone are more likely to snore and to report symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea, according to a new study published this week in PLoS ONE by Kai Triebner of University of Bergen, Norway, and colleagues. [Support for a COVID-19 vaccine mandate in schools modest among NYC parents] School-based vaccine mandates are the most effective way to improve vaccination coverage in children, but a new study by CUNY SPH researchers shows only modest support among New York City parents for a COVID-19 vaccine mandate in schools.

    [NSAID improves vascular health in adults with severe depression] Science has long established a link between depression and cardiovascular disease, but the precise nature of the connection is less clear. In a new proof-of-concept study, researchers worked to zero in on the mechanism behind this link. The study is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology. It was chosen as an APSselect article for June. [Predictors of diagnostic delay in psoriasis identified] Diagnostic delay is common for patients with psoriasis and is increased for men and with psoriasis in specific areas, according to a study recently published online in the British Journal of Dermatology. [COVID-19 vaccines safe for patients treated for lung cancer with immune checkpoint inhibitors] Cancer patients have received priority status to receive COVID-19 vaccinations but there is limited data regarding the safety and efficacy of the vaccines for patients treated for lung cancer with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Now, a new study published in the Journal of Thoracic Oncology found that vaccines are safe and effective for these patients. [Light in your bedroom is no good for your health] Keeping your bedroom dark not only helps you get a good nights sleep, but may significantly lower your odds of developing three major health problems, a new study suggests.

    [Researchers spot sign of Alzheimers risk that scammers love] Could the way a senior handles his or her money offer clues about their risk for Alzheimers disease? [Dopamine regulates insulin secretion through a complex of receptors, study finds] Diabetes is a lifelong, chronic health condition caused by abnormalities in the bodys production and use of the hormone insulin. Research has shown that the feel-good hormone, dopamine (DA), plays a key role in how the body regulates the production of insulin. Typically, insulin is secreted by cells in the pancreas called beta-cells, in response to glucose—a process that is aptly called glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). DA negatively regulates GSIS, leading to transient changes in the bodys levels of insulins. But the mechanism behind this regulation was unknown, until now. [US HPV vaccination rates rising, even among boys] More and more of Americas teens are getting vaccinated against the human papillomavirus virus (HPV), new research indicates. [Most common allergies not linked to rheumatoid arthritis] Most common allergies are not associated with the risk for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but some allergic conditions, including animal dander allergy and atopic dermatitis, are associated with increased RA risk, according to a study recently published in RMD Open.

    [Young adults with higher exposure to household air pollution show worse lung function] A new study led by researchers from the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal) has evaluated the link between air pollution and lung function of young adults who had recently attained their expected maximum lung function. The study, published in Environment International, found that participants with higher exposure to ambient and household air pollution had worse results in lung function tests. [The younger we feel, the better we rehabilitate] As scientists gradually discover evidence that people who feel younger than their chronological age are typically healthier and more psychologically resilient, the saying youre only as old as you feel rings increasingly true. [New guidelines have some stroke patients dropping aspirin. That could be dangerous] After decades when millions of Americans who were at risk for cardiovascular trouble were told a daily low-dose aspirin would guard against strokes and heart attacks, new guidelines issued this spring recommend that the strategy is not worth the bleeding risks in those over 60. [Primary care outreach boosts COVID-19 vaccination rates] Primary care provider (PCP) outreach using electronic and mailed messages increases COVID-19 vaccination rates among older Black and Latino adults, according to a study published online June 17 in JAMA Network Open.

    [Getting tough on tuft cell lung cancer] Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) Professor Christopher Vakocs team discovered in 2018 a new type of small-cell lung cancer. The cancer originates from cells known as tuft cells. The prognosis for tuft cell lung cancer is extremely poor. Now, the Vakoc team has discovered how tuft cells are generated in the body. Disrupting tuft cell development may be a new way to treat this deadly lung cancer. [Disparities in obesity rates seen among US adolescents] Socioeconomic disparities in obesity prevalence grew from 1999 to 2018 among U.S. adolescents, according to a research letter published online June 21 in JAMA Pediatrics. [Maternal deaths up with pregnancies complicated by cancer] Among pregnancies complicated by cancer, the risks for severe maternal morbidity and mortality are increased, according to a research letter published online June 16 in JAMA Oncology. [Contrast-enhanced mammography vs. MRI: Neoadjuvant therapy response in breast cancer] According to the ARRS American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR), contrast-enhanced mammography (CEM) may be a useful alternative test for neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) response assessment in patients with breast cancer who are unable to undergo MRI.

    [Attitudes around older motherhood too often emphasize risk and pregnancy timing, researcher says] In current policy texts, medical guidelines and educational materials, the dominant discourse surrounding women who give birth later in life largely focuses on the negatives: the health risks to mother and child, for instance, or the difficulties of being a new parent at an older than optimal age. [Researchers evaluate attempts to improve detection of small babies during pregnancy] Small babies or those that fail to reach their growth potential are at increased risk of poor pregnancy and birth outcomes, including stillbirth. Up to 40% of all stillbirths may be related to inadequate growth of the baby during pregnancy. The growth of the baby in the womb also influences the well-being the mother during pregnancy and birth. Yet at present, only around 1 in 4 of these small babies are identified in pregnancy. [Restoring mens fertility after cancer] A tragic side-effect of chemotherapy might soon be a thing of the past, with researchers uncovering a vital pathway to restoring mens fertility after cancer. [New finding improves tumor response to immunotherapies] Researchers from The University of Western Australia and Olivia Newton-John Cancer Research Institute have found a new way to improve treatment of tumors that previously did not respond to immunotherapies.

    [Mechanisms regulating balance between formation of neurons and maintenance of stem cells in brain formation revealed] A new study by the Neuronal Dynamics Research Group at Universitat Pompeu Fabra in Barcelona (UPF) has elucidated the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate the balance between the differentiation of neurons and the maintenance of progenitor cells during the construction of the embryonic brain. The study, conducted in the zebrafish model, has been published in the journal Cell Reports. [New antibody therapies fight cancer, drum up investment] Antibody therapies are offering promising treatment breakthroughs for cancer and other illnesses, generating greater investor interest more than 20 years after they were first commercialized. [US wants to ban Juul vaping products: report] US health authorities are expected to order Juul Labs to stop selling e-cigarettes in the worlds biggest economy, the Wall Street Journal reported Wednesday. [Moderna says new booster candidate effective against Omicron subvariants] Moderna on Wednesday said its new COVID booster candidate, which it is hoping to get approved this fall, performed well against Omicrons latest subvariants.

    [Planning can help gun owners age safely] The Harborview Injury Prevention & Research Center (HIPRC) has created a new online resource to help older adults with cognitive impairment draw up a plan for safekeeping of firearms. [Surgeons develop new technique to reduce Adams apple without neck scar] Doctors at the UCLA Gender Health Program have developed a technique to reduce an Adams apple bump without leaving a scar on the patients neck. [Babys kick in the womb may be key to treating disease and training robots] Does the nervous system come with instructions for how it should connect to the body or must it figure this out during early development? A new model from researchers at the University of Southern California and Lund University in Sweden suggests that spontaneous movements made by a fetus in the womb (including those kicks) are a key step in getting the bodys nervous system wired up. The researchers model, published in a pair of papers in the Journal of Neurophysiology, suggests that the complex circuits of the nervous system are not pre-determined by genes but rather are reinforced by body movements. [CDC panel recommends US seniors get souped-up flu vaccines] Americans 65 and older should get newer, souped-up flu vaccines because regular shots dont provide them enough protection, a federal advisory panel said Wednesday.

    [Can acupuncture reduce headaches?] Acupuncture may reduce headaches for people who have chronic tension-type headaches, according to a study published in the June 22, 2022, online issue of Neurology. [Researchers publish findings of first successful transplant of genetically modified pig heart into human patient] Six months ago, University of Maryland School of Medicine surgeon-scientists successfully implanted a genetically modified pig heart into a 57 year-old patient with terminal heart disease in a first-of-its-kind surgery. It was considered an early success because the patient lived for two months with a strong functioning heart showing no obvious signs of rejection, according to a new paper published today in the New England Journal of Medicine. [Researchers find medical industry funded studies more likely to find new treatments cost effective] Medical industry sponsorship of economic evaluations on new treatments are more likely to be found cost-effective than independent research across a range of diseases, [Do online classes during school closures impact students mental health?] New research published in Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences Reports suggests that implementing online classes during COVID-19–related school closures in Japan may have helped protect adolescents mental health.

    [Does glaucoma affect cognitive function?] Previous studies have looked for links between glaucoma—a neurodegenerative disorder thats the leading cause of irreversible blindness—and cognitive function, but theyve generated mixed results. Findings from a large study recently published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society suggest that any association may be small or absent. [Moderna to build UK centre for mRNA vaccines] Moderna and the UK government on Wednesday announced a deal for the US biotech firm to build a cutting-edge centre to develop and produce mRNA vaccines for respiratory diseases, including COVID. [Long wait over as US vaccinates youngest against COVID] US hospitals, clinics and pharmacies began vaccinating the nations youngest children against COVID-19 on Tuesday, a milestone that was welcomed by parents eager to protect kids from the worst impacts of the virus. [France monkeypox count rises to 277, one woman infected] France has detected 277 cases of monkeypox, health authorities said Tuesday, including the first case in the country of a woman contracting the virus. [South Korea reports first imported case of monkeypox] South Korea reported its first imported cases of monkeypox Wednesday, becoming the latest of some 40 countries—and the first in East Asia—to have identified the disease.

    [Swiss to lift ban on medical use cannabis] The Swiss government on Wednesday decided to lift the ban on cannabis for medical use from August 1. [Africa must step up surveillance to curb monkeypox] African governments must focus on investing in their surveillance systems and strengthening preparedness to curb the rapid spread of infectious diseases like monkeypox, experts have said. [Amid surgical mesh concerns, surgeons are asked: What treatment would you choose for yourself?] There is a long history of confusion and controversy regarding the use of polypropylene mesh materials for pelvic floor disorders in women, such as stress urinary incontinence (SUI) or pelvic organ prolapse (POP). So what option would specialist surgeons choose if they were to undergo these procedures themselves? Thats the question asked in a survey study in Urology Practice. [Q and A: Biggest benefits of exercise for teens] DEAR MAYO CLINIC: When my daughter was young, she spent hours playing outside and running around. That happens a lot less now that she is a teen. Im worried that she is not getting enough exercise. How much does she need each week, and do you have tips to motivate her to get moving? [Tampons are in short supply across the United States] Women arent imagining it as they view near-empty store shelves: Global supply chain issues have prompted a shortage of tampons.

    [What is sugar alcohol? The reduced-calorie sweetener you might not recognize] From 2017 to 2020, American obesity prevalence was 41.9%, according to the CDC. During that timespan, roughly 135 million Americans were considered medically obese, putting a large sector of the population at increased risk of heart disease, stroke, Type 2 diabetes and even certain types of cancer. [Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak] [Analyses of the relation between peoples mobility and SARS-CoV-2 spread reveals three groups of countries] A new study analyzing the link between peoples reduced movement and the spread of coronavirus in 2020 shows that in some countries, the virus spread more rapidly when people stayed at home. In addition, restricting peoples mobility to some extent appeared, retrospectively, to be better at minimizing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 than extreme mobility restrictions, in many countries. [Study finds repurposed drug inhibits enzyme related to COVID-19] With the end of the pandemic seemingly nowhere in sight, scientists are still very focused on finding new or alternative drugs to treat and stop the spread of COVID-19. In a first-of-its-kind study, researchers at the University of New Hampshire have found that using an already existing drug compound in a new way, known as drug repurposing, could be successful in blocking the activity of a key enzyme of the coronavirus, or SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19.

    [Denmark to offers fourth COVID-19 shot to some] A fourth COVID-19 vaccine dose will be offered to nursing home residents and people age 50 and over in Denmark later this year, the prime minister said Wednesday. [COVID subvariants cast shadow over European summer] A resurgence of COVID-19 cases in Europe, this time driven by new, fast-spreading Omicron subvariants, is once again threatening to disrupt peoples summer plans. [Other Sciences news] [Canterbury suburbs were home to some of Britains earliest humans, 600,000-year-old finds reveal] Archaeological discoveries made on the outskirts of Canterbury, Kent (England) confirm the presence of early humans in southern Britain between 560,000 and 620,000 years ago, making it one of the earliest known Paleolithic sites in northern Europe. [Women in science receive less credit for their contributions, study finds] Women in science are less likely than their male counterparts to receive authorship credit for the work they do, an innovative new study finds. [New evidence suggests love languages are important for heterosexual relationship satisfaction] New evidence supports the idea that heterosexual relationship satisfaction is linked to fulfillment of peoples personal preferences for receiving affection expressed according to distinct love languages.

    Olha Mostova of the University of Warsaw, Poland, and colleagues present these findings in the open-access journal PLOS ONE on June 22, 2022. [Fights in pro hockey dont deter greater violence, study finds] Allowing fights among players in the National Hockey Leagues does not deter greater violence in the modern game, according to a new study. [Indigenous communities used the Caribbean Sea as an aquatic highway] With some 7,000 islands and cays and a 7,000-year history of human habitation, the Caribbean Sea is practically synonymous with maritime travel. The very word canoe is derived from the term kana:wa, used by the Indigenous Arawakans of the Caribbean to describe their dugout vessels. [LARPing has more intense effect than other entertainment] In season four of the Netflix series Stranger Things, an alternate dimension the Upside Down bleeds into the real world. Now new research by the University of Sydney and Monash University has found this is a common experience for people who engage in live action role-playing games. [Pandemics impacts on how people live and work may change city centers for decades to come] If companies allowed more of their employees to permanently work from home, businesses would gravitate toward city centers, while people would primarily live in the periphery, resulting in less traffic congestion and falling real estate prices downtown.

    [First multigenerational study of Head Start shows significant gains for second generation] New research is the first to show large-scale intergenerational effects of the federal Head Start program that launched in 1965 as part of President Lyndon B. Johnsons War on Poverty. The program continues to this day and serves children from low-income families and disadvantaged circumstances. [Celibacy: Its surprising evolutionary advantages] Why would someone join an institution that removed the option of family life and required them to be celibate? Reproduction, after all, is at the very heart of the evolution that shaped us. Yet many religious institutions around the world require exactly this. The practice has led anthropologists to wonder how celibacy could have evolved in the first place. [Citizen scientists are demographically homogenous: The need for a volunteer-centric approach] Over the last century, the contributions of citizen scientists have proven a vital source of scientific data, with projects such as the Christmas Bird Count fueling high-impact research programs. However, less data has been accrued about those who actually participate in these important programs. Writing in BioScience, Bradley Allf (North Carolina State University) and colleagues turn the lens of inquiry to citizen science itself, examining the demographics and participation patterns of the volunteers.

    [How much is the great resignation costing companies?] For many investors, the SECs November 2020 human capital disclosure requirement didnt require enough. The rule allows companies to choose what workforce costs, wellness, diversity and retention details—among other human capital data—to share, providing substantial managerial discretion. Human capital has become a major financial performance predictor, especially amidst a tight labor market. On average, labor expenses make up 57% of operating costs at S&P 500 companies, according to MyLogIQ. High turnover rates can also indicate poor management or a lack of business agility. In competitive markets shareholders worry that companies might subvert workforce risks without stricter SEC regulations. But a new study by three Vanderbilt professors may allay these fears. It examines human capital disclosures over 20 years, finding most companies reveal risk in good faith and that prior SEC rule changes made a significant impact. [Study links obsessive passion and social alienation to support for political violence] Violent extremism could be defined as support for violence to achieve political, ideological or social objectives. Under the umbrella of this type of mindset, violent acts are seen as a legitimate means of imposing a way of life in which there is no room for diversity.

    But what really underlies this type of behavior, and what drives a given person to exhibit these behaviors in which political violence is a desirable option? [Data gaps for race and ethnicity are holding back antiracism efforts, new report says] During the first year of the pandemic, Black people accounted for a disproportionate 15 percent of COVID-19 deaths in the United States. That number is bleak, but its also probably incomplete: it includes only deaths where an official took the time to log the deceaseds race and ethnicity. In many cases, that information was not recorded, meaning the full unequal impact of the pandemic may never be known. [Rescuing ancient Maya history from the plow] Things have changed since I was last in Belize in 2018, when I excavated the ancestral Maya pilgrimage site Cara Blanca. Thousands of acres of jungle are gone, replaced by fields of corn and sugarcane. Hundreds of ancestral Maya mounds are now exposed in the treeless landscape, covered by soil that is currently plowed several times a year. [Local economic data encourages legislators to open emails—but only Democrats] Personalizing outreach to legislators to include the local economic impact of an issue can increase engagement with research among Democratic, but not Republican, legislators.

    [Research uncovers digital poverty across North Wests rural communities] A new study by researchers at Lancaster University reveals 28% of the population in North West England are not confident completing key tasks online, such as applying for a job or making an online call. Most alarmingly, over half of those aged 65 and above and those on lower incomes lack digital skills, meaning those most in need of online services are least likely to be able to access them. [Can gender diversity on boards of directors improve companies social commitment and sustainability?] Social commitment leads to good relationships between companies and its stakeholders, and it is the board of directors responsibility to ensure that companies fulfill their commitment to the communities and society of which they are a member. In a study published in Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, researchers who analyzed the boards of directors of publicly listed US firms found that board gender diversity is positively associated with firms social commitment to human rights, product responsibility, and their community and workforce. [Local economies losing £4.5 million a year to the poverty premium] New research has revealed for the first time the economic impact of the poverty premium at a local level across Britain.

    [With $10 million windfall, free Seattle coding school for women goes national to speed change in techs bro culture] Amber Tanaka was burned out. [Think twice before founding that free-market utopia, researcher warns] Its a quaint fantasy: pack up your belongings, hop on a plane and escape to a remote island or maybe even found a tiny nation of your own, where you can live unencumbered by the constraints of society. This email is a free service of Science X Network You received this email because you subscribed to our list. If you do not wish to receive such emails in the future, please unsubscribe here . You are subscribed as new-zicutake-2519.tobias11@blogger.com. You may manage your subscription options from your Science X profile

     
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