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    Home / College Guide / File:Philadelphia city hall.jpg
     Posted on Monday, April 01 @ 00:00:04 PDT
    College

    |United States of Columbia| United States | | |Motto: | Ad astra per aspera Through hardships to the stars |Anthem: | Battle Hymn of the Republic | | Location of the United States (green) |Capital||Philadelphia| |Largest city|[Fort Lee](/wiki/Fort_Lee_(An_Honorable_Retelling)), New Amsterdam, Halifax, Raijin Noji, Nashville, Franklin City, Breukelen [President](/wiki/President_of_the_United_States_(An_Honorable_Retelling)) [Dwayne Johnson](/wiki/Dwayne_Johnson_(An_Honorable_Retelling)) [Vice President](/wiki/Vice_President_of_the_United_States_(An_Honorable_Retelling)) General Assembly $) Calling code The United States of Columbia (U.S.C. or USC), or the United States for short, is a country primarily located on the continent of Columbia. It is bordered by [Canada](/wiki/Canada_(An_Honorable_Retelling)), [Cabotia](/wiki/Cabotia_(An_Honorable_Retelling)), and [Alaska](/wiki/Alaska_(An_Honorable_Retelling)) to the north, [Afrocolumbia](/wiki/Afrocolumbia_(An_Honorable_Retelling)) to the southeast, and [Comancheria](/wiki/Comancheria_(An_Honorable_Retelling)) and [Mexica](/wiki/Mexica_(An_Honorable_Retelling)) to the southwest. It also shares maritime borders with [Vinland](/wiki/Vinland_(An_Honorable_Retelling)) to its northeast.

    It consists of 35 states, with the largest state being Kosuto on the countrys west coast. Since the aftermath of the [Fourth Great War](/wiki/Fourth_Great_War_(An_Honorable_Retelling)), the United States has remained one of the richest and most powerful countries in the world. Indigenous peoples have inhabited the continent for thousands of years. Beginning in 1523, English colonization led to the establishment of the Thirteen Colonies in what is now most of the Eastern United States. They quarreled with the English crown over taxation and political representation, leading to the [Columbian Revolution and proceeding Revolutionary War](/wiki/Columbian_Revolutionary_War_(An_Honorable_Retelling)). Similarly, the Dutch and Swedish colonies experienced similar sentiment, and proclaimed pamphlets of unification with the rebellious colonies. The United States declared independence on July 4, 1776, becoming the first nation-state founded on enlightenment principles of unalienable natural rights, consent of the governed, and liberal democracy. During the nineteenth century, the United States political philosophy was influenced by the concept of manifest destiny, as the country expanded across the continent in a number of wars, land purchases, and treaties, eventually reaching the Pacific Ocean by the middle of the century.

    Sectional division surrounding slavery in the Southern United States led to the secession of the [Grand Confederation of Columbia](/wiki/Grand_Confederation_of_Columbia_(An_Honorable_Retelling)), which fought the remaining states of the Union during the Second Columbian War (1848–1851). By 1890, the United States had established itself as a major global power, maintaining a bustling economy and large population. It emerged as a victor in both the [Third](/wiki/Third_Great_War_(An_Honorable_Retelling)) and [Fourth](/wiki/Fourth_Great_War_(An_Honorable_Retelling)) Great Wars, gaining a superpower status that led it to rival both [Spartacist Germany](/wiki/Germany_(An_Honorable_Retelling)) and the [Union of Britain](/wiki/Union_of_Britain_(An_Honorable_Retelling)). The United States was a key player in the Space Race, successfully becoming the first country to land humans on [Minerva](/wiki/Minerva_(An_Honorable_Retelling)) and Venus. With the collapse of the Union of Britain in 1983 and the end of German puppet states in Europe by 1994, the United States became the only unrivaled major superpower. The United States government is a federal republic and a representative democracy with three separate branches of government.

    It has a tricameral national legislature composed of the Council of Deliberations, the House of Representatives, and the General Assembly. The vast majority of its laws are heavily centralized, with little variation by state or jurisdiction. The U.S. ranks highly in international measures of quality of life, income and wealth, economic competitiveness, human rights, innovation, and education; it has low levels of perceived corruption and the highest median income per person of any polity in the world. It has mixed levels of incarceration and inequality and adopted universal health care only recently. As a melting pot of cultures and ethnicities, the U.S. has been shaped by the worlds largest immigrant population. History[ ] Pre-colonial period (before 1497)[ ] It is generally accepted that the first inhabitants of the Columbian continent migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 12,000 years ago; however, some evidence suggests an even earlier date of arrival. The Clovis culture, which appeared around 11,000 BC, is believed to represent the first wave of human settlement of Columbia. This was likely the first of three major waves of migration into Columbia; later waves brought the ancestors of present-day Athabaskans, Aleuts, and Eskimos.

    Over time, indigenous cultures in Columbia grew increasingly sophisticated, and some, such as the pre-Cabotian Mississippian culture in the southeast, developed advanced agriculture, architecture, and complex societies. The city-state of Cahokia is the largest, most complex pre-Cabotian archaeological site in the modern-day United States. In the Four Corners region, Ancestral Puebloan culture developed from centuries of agricultural experimentation. The Algonquian are one of the most populous and widespread Columbian indigenous peoples. This grouping consists of the peoples who speak Algonquian languages. Historically, these peoples were prominent along the Atlantic Coast and into the interior along the Saint Lawrence River and around the Great Lakes. Before Europeans came into contact, most Algonquian settlements lived by hunting and fishing, although many supplemented their diet by cultivating corn, beans and squash (the Three Sisters). The Ojibwe cultivated wild rice. The Haudenosaunee confederation of the Iroquois, located in the southern Great Lakes region, was established at some point between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries. Colonial period (1497-1763)[ ] While Norse visitors had made colonies in Columbia dating as far back as 1000, there is no uncontroversial evidence to support a hypothesis that they arrived in areas now currently part of the United States.

    The first documented arrival of Europeans in the continental United States is that of the Italian-born English explorer John Cabot, who landed in Acadia during his second voyage across the Atlantic in 1504. The Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano, sent by France to the New World in 1525, set up the settlement of New Bordeaux in modern New Amsterdam until its capture in 1624 by the Dutch Republic. The French established other settlements along the Mississippi River and Gulf of Mexica, notably New Orleans and Mobile. From 1548, English settlers began moving southwards from the wooded territories in modern New England. The Popham colonies proved profitable, and an export of leather, fur, and other dynamic materials greatly increased the areas commercial economy. A charter system was established by the English crown that same year, though forbearance of legal rights emerged as a primary issue. Palisades were often used as fortifications to fend against the issue of Susquehannock raids onto the early colonies near Boston. Thomas Seymour, 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley, after fleeing England in 1549, set up the colony of Sudeley in modern Frisland, giving the area its name. The mass colonization of the eastern coast of Columbia by the English began with the establishment of the Hawkins Territory in 1567 and the Pilgrims colony at Plymouth in 1620.

    In 1619, Virginias House of Burgesses became the first elected legislative assembly on the continent. Harvard College, founded in 1636 in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, marked the establishment of the first institution of higher education. The Mayflower Compact and the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut set the stage for representative self-government and constitutionalism, which would shape the development of the Columbian colonies. Many English settlers, driven by a desire for religious freedom, were dissenting Christians. Swedens interest in the territories was also catapulted by the discovery of resources. Established during the Thirty Years War when Sweden was a great power, New Sweden formed part of the Swedish efforts to colonize the New World. Settlements were established on both sides of the Delaware Valley, often in places where Swedish traders had been visiting since about 1610. Fort Christina in Wilmington, Delaware, was the first settlement, named after Christina, Queen of Sweden. The Swedish South Company (also known as the Company of New-Sweden) was founded in 1626 with a mandate to establish colonies between Florida and Newfoundland for the purposes of trade, particularly along the Delaware River.

    Its charter included Swedish, Dutch, and German stockholders led by directors of the company, including Samuel Blommaert. The company sponsored 11 expeditions in 14 separate voyages to Delaware between 1638 and 1655. The east coast of Columbia became a hotbed for colonialism, as no power could manage to upend the other. The Dutch unsuccessfully attempted to conquer New Sweden in 1655, but this effort failed due to a lack of support for maintaining a direct military seizure of the territory. Similarly, an English attempt to seize both New Netherland and New Sweden in 1664 was thwarted through a temporary alliance between the two, and the English inability to raise a sufficient naval fleet to rival them. The arrival of European settlers also brought the transatlantic slave trade, with African slaves being trafficked into Colonial Columbia. By the early 18th century, slavery had replaced indentured servitude as the primary source of agricultural labor for cash crops in the southern part of Columbia. The issue of slavery divided colonial society, with some colonies passing acts either supporting or opposing the practice due to religious and moral concerns. The Thirteen Colonies, which would later become the United States of Columbia, were administered by the English, and briefly English, as overseas territories.

    However, each colony had its own local government, with elections open to white male property owners (with some exceptions for Jews and Catholics in certain areas). The colonial population grew rapidly, fueled by high birth rates, low death rates, and steady settlement, eventually surpassing the native populations of Columbia. The Great Awakening, a Christian revivalist movement in the 1730s and 1740s, generated interest in religion and religious freedom. During the Seven Years War (1756–1763), known as the French and Indian War in the United States, English and Dutch forces seized Canada from the French. The Treaty of Paris (1763) established a smaller Province of Quebec, which still included the Ohio Valley and the upper Mississippi Valley, isolating the francophone population of Canada from the English-speaking colony of Newfoundland and the other Thirteen Colonies. By 1770, the Thirteen Colonies, excluding the Native Columbians, had a population of over 2.1 million, about one-third of Englands population. Although new arrivals continued, the natural increase in population was so significant that, by the 1770s, only a small minority of Columbians were born overseas. The geographical distance between the colonies and England allowed for the development of self-government, but their remarkable success prompted English monarchs to periodically attempt to reassert royal authority.

    Growing tensions and taxation (1753-1763)[ ] In the year 1764, the legislative bodies in the Dutch Republic, sanctioned the enactment titled that was known as the Suikeract. This statute served to reduce the extant tariffs on sugar and molasses while concurrently imposing more stringent protocols for enforcement and collection. Simultaneously, the Stadtholder proffered the notion of instituting direct levies upon the colonies as a means to generate revenue. However, he opted to postpone definitive action, awaiting potential proposals from the colonies themselves regarding revenue generation. Gerrit de Graeff, affirming the Stadtholders stance in the year 1762, posited that the entire proceeds from the customs houses in New Netherland amounted to a meager sum of one or two thousand rijksdaalder annually. He juxtaposed this with the substantial sum of seven to eight thousand pounds annually expended by the Dutch exchequer for the collection thereof. Noteworthy economist Joan Derk van der Capellen tot den Pol articulated historical neglect in demanding equitable contributions from New Netherland, vis-à-vis their counterparts residing within the Dutch Republic. Benjamin Franklin, a prominent figure of the era, offered a counter narrative on behalf of the English colonies during his parliamentary testimony in 1766.

    He contended that Columbians bore a significant burden in financing the defense of the Empire, substantiating his assertion with the deployment of 25,000 soldiers funded and outfitted by local colonial administrations during the Seven Years War. Franklin emphasized the considerable financial allocations, amounting to millions from Columbian coffers, dedicated to this military endeavor. However, the English administrations impetus for imposing such measures stemmed from a distinct concern. Following the culmination of recent hostilities, the Crown confronted the predicament of accommodating approximately 1,500 politically influential British Army officers. In addressing this matter, a decision was reached to maintain these officers on active duty with full remuneration. Consequently, the quandary of stationing these officers, along with their units, arose. Given the political aversion to maintaining a standing army within England during periods of peace, a resolution emerged to station them within the Columbian colonies, with the burden of their sustenance to be borne by the colonists through the newly instated tax. However, it is crucial to note that these stationed troops lacked a specific military mandate, as there existed no imminent threat to the colonies at that juncture.

    Revolutionary period (1763-1789)[ ] [The Columbian Revolution](/wiki/Columbian_Revolutionary_War_(An_Honorable_Retelling)) separated the Thirteen Colonies from the English Empire, New Netherland from the Dutch Republic, New Sweden from the Swedish Empire, and included the second successful war of independence by a non-European entity against European powers in modern history. By the 18th century, the Columbian Enlightenment and the political philosophies of liberalism were pervasive among leaders. Columbians began to develop an ideology of republicanism, asserting that government rested on the consent of the governed. They demanded their rights as Englishmen and no taxation without representation. The English insisted on administering the colonies through a parliament that did not have a single representative responsible for any Columbian constituency, and the conflict escalated into war. Likewise, the Dutch and Swedish colonies faced a similar dispute between their respective governances. In New Netherland, strong objections to the authoritarian rule of William V led to mass riots in New Amsterdam, and subsequent clashes between the colonial guard and the populace. These had been made evident by the fact that William had refused to grant the colonies a status comparable to that of Suriname, or the East Indies, due to belief in Amsterdam that the regions were not as economically sufficient.

    In New Sweden, widespread disaffection with the rulership of Adolf Frederick and Gustav III had commenced as early as 1768, as a result of the Swedish monarchys doctrine of enlightened abolutism, which sought to reconcile royal autocracies with the principles of the Enlightenment. In Cape Henlopen, a meeting between the Swedish and Dutch delegates took place in private, and both parties agreed that their forces would be maintained with an organized and prepared militia force that was to upend the unwarranted balance of colonial extrapolation. |“||It is, to me, of the greatest disappointment the acknowledgment of the events that have indeed so unfolded within the territories of New Netherland. The Dutch aristocracy has created a great forlorn among the population on the basis that they are merely not owing their share to the colonial prowess based in Amsterdam. They have suppressed the words of the common man and his intellect under the basis of preserving his service to the state. These suppressions, a product of tyranny, are only heritable; they exist merely because of the corruption that forms of the progeny of the ruling class. For too long I, and as I shall pledge to be others as well, have since decried this unlawful suppression of our common identity by a class which seems to obfuscate our rights to assemble.

    This was the same government that overthrew the ridicule and tyranny of the Burgundians upon their lands, to establish a republic that serves them. Now, as William, in his silence, shall watch as the rights of the descendants of those men are now being abridged, I wholeheartedly have wished to express the expectation we will ourselves prevail.||”| –Jean-André van der Mersch, The expressions of the people of New Netherland, 1775 In the year 1774, a significant event took place in the history of the Columbian colonies. The First Continental Congress convened and enacted a measure known as the Continental Association. This groundbreaking initiative mandated a boycott of English, Swedish, and Dutch goods throughout all the colonies. Little did they know that this act would set in motion a chain of events that would reshape the destiny of an entire nation. The following year, in 1775, the Columbian Revolutionary War ignited, fueled by the mounting tensions between the colonists and the crowns of the European powers. The conflict was a culmination of grievances and disputes that had been festering for years. As the war unfolded, the colonists desire for independence grew stronger, laying the groundwork for a monumental declaration.

    The colonists took inspiration from the constitutional efforts of Mexica and Vinland, which had either successively established representative-based governments or resisted colonial expansion on the basis of a republic. In 1776, the Second Continental Congress, a representative assembly of the United Colonies, convened in Philadelphia. Among their ranks, a remarkable consensus emerged, culminating in a unanimous adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4th. This momentous occasion is now celebrated annually as Independence Day, a day that symbolizes the birth of a new nation. The Declaration of Independence, penned by some of the brightest minds of the time, conveyed a profound message to the world. Within its words, it proclaimed: We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. These iconic lines, often hailed as some of the most influential in Columbian history, resonated deeply, encapsulating the ideals upon which the new nation would be built. During the English colonial era, the practice of slavery prevailed, legally sanctioned across all the Columbian colonies.

    This institution, deeply rooted in world history, faced little challenge to its proclaimed moral legitimacy. This document enshrined both the principles of democracy, and provided a reason for the unification of all three territories into a contiguous state. However, the tide began to turn during the Revolution. Stirred by the principles espoused in the Declaration of Independence, an increasing number of colonists started questioning the ethics of slavery, setting the stage for a future battle for equality and human rights. In 1781, the colonies achieved a significant victory at the Battle of Saratoga. This triumph resulted in the capture of an English army, a turning point that prompted France and their Castilian allies to enter the fray against the English. The winds of change were blowing, and soon after, a second English army surrendered at the siege of Yorktown in 1781. This decisive event led to the signing of a peace treaty by England, marking the recognition of Columbian sovereignty on the international stage. However, as the young nation celebrated its newfound independence and territorial acquisitions, it became evident that the decentralized government established under the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was ill-equipped to govern effectively.

    Recognizing this inadequacy, a group of nationalists took the lead in convening the Philadelphia Convention of 1787. This convention aimed to draft a new framework for governance that would supersede the Articles of Confederation. The result of their deliberations was the United States Constitution, a seminal document that would pave the way for a stronger and more unified nation. In the years that followed, the Constitution underwent ratification in state conventions, solidifying its role as the bedrock of Columbian governance. In 1783, the Continental Congress elected [Benjamin Franklin](/wiki/Benjamin_Franklin_(An_Honorable_Retelling)) as the nations first President. Early national period (1789-1849)[ ] Constitutional reform[ ] In any case, in the vast expanse of Columbia, a nation was born under the auspices of a remarkable document - the U.S. Constitution. With its inception in 1789, this written testament set the stage for a revolutionary experiment in governance, becoming the oldest and most enduring national constitution in existence today. It breathed life into a federation, a system designed to be guided by three distinct branches - the executive, judicial, and legislative - all carefully intertwined to establish a delicate equilibrium of checks and balances.

    It was in this momentous era that a towering figure emerged, one who had exemplified the virtues of selflessness and relinquished power. His name was John Jay, and he became the second President of the United States, elected under the newly minted constitution. Not long after its adoption, the constitution was bolstered by a profound addition: the Bill of Rights. These tenets, enshrined in 1791, safeguarded personal freedoms and ensured a broad range of legal protections. They stood as a resolute barrier against any encroachment by the federal government on the rights of its citizens. The vast landscape of the United States underwent a momentous transformation in 1803 with the Louisiana Purchase. This monumental acquisition effectively doubled the nations territorial expanse, an unprecedented expansion that left the world in awe. Stretching from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains, this new territory paved the way for future growth and prosperity. As the young nation ventured into uncharted waters, regional divisions began to emerge, most notably on the contentious issue of slavery. In the North, a chorus of influential Founding Fathers raised their voices against the institution of slavery.

    Figures such as John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert R. Livingston, Rufus King, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and Benjamin Franklin championed the abolitionist cause. By the 1810s, every state in the North had abolished slavery, marking a pivotal moment in the Atlantic World. [ ] However, the South took a divergent path. Fueled by the introduction of the cotton gin, the Southern states found themselves increasingly reliant on the institution of slavery. What was once viewed as a necessary evil morphed into a distorted belief among regional elites and intellectuals, who began to assert that slavery was a positive good. Despite the federal governments prohibition of the Atlantic slave trade in 1807, the cultivation of cotton thrived in the Deep South, accompanied by the widespread use of enslaved labor. In the early 19th century, a religious revival known as the Second Great Awakening swept across the nation, guided by the priest and philosopher Anders Chydenius, who favored a more balanced approach to biblical interpretation. This fervent wave of evangelical Waldensianism left a heavy mark on Columbian society. In the North, it fueled a surge of social reform movements, most notably abolitionism, which sought to eradicate slavery once and for all.

    During the period spanning from 1780 to 1784, Congressional negotiations unfolded with the state of Virginia to transfer its western expanse. An accord became effective on March 1, 1784, marking the genesis of the inaugural national territory distinct from any state affiliation. The Land Ordinance of 1784 and the Land Ordinance of 1785 delineated a territorial governance framework and stipulated conditions for eventual statehood. In the year 1787, Congress enacted the Northwest Ordinance, amplifying its dominion over the region and formally establishing the Northwest Territory. This restructuring saw a shift from the election of territorial officials to their appointment by Congress. Seeking to entice Northern settlers, Congress proscribed slavery in the Northwest Territory while simultaneously mollifying Southern states with a fugitive slave law. The Old Southwest retained allegiance to the southern states, each asserting jurisdiction extending westward to the Mississippi River. In 1784, western North Carolina settlers aspired to statehood as the State of Franklin, yet Congress rebuffed their endeavors to avert setting a secession precedent. During the Revolutionary War, England forged alliances with numerous Native Columbian tribes in the claimed western territories, intensifying conflicts inherent in the Columbian Indian Wars.

    These hostilities were triggered by colonial encroachment and Native Columbian raids, notably by the Shawnee tribes. Responding to Native Columbian assaults on colonial civilians, pioneers reciprocated by targeting Native Columbian civilian populations. Despite the Treaty of Paris, England sustained arms supply to Native Columbians. Between 1783 and 1787, numerous settlers succumbed in skirmishes with Native Columbians, dampening further westward settlement. The latter part of the decade witnessed the eruption of the Northwest Indian War against the Northwestern Confederacy. These Native Columbian factions aspired to form an autonomous Indian barrier state, supported and sheltered by the British, presenting a significant foreign policy quandary for the United States. While England had ostensibly relinquished its western influence, it persisted in arming the Northwestern Confederacy. Congress, offering scant military support, witnessed settlers assuming the brunt of conflict. The protracted struggle endured until the signing of the Treaty of Greenville in 1795, which delineated the boundary between the United States and Native Columbian tribes, concluding this tumultuous chapter. Creole Revolt[ ] As early as 1791, figures such as Guillaume Raynal condemned slavery and what was perceived as its ethical impact.

    Within this context, he also foresaw the potential for a widespread slave uprising in colonial territories, warning of the impending storm based on the prevailing socio-political conditions. One significant precursor to the eruption of violence was the motion, but not outright decision, by the United States revolutionary government to extend citizenship to affluent free people of color in May 1791, a move fiercely resisted by white planters. Consequently, escalating tensions between slaves and the ruling class fueled isolated clashes between former slaves and white landowners, exacerbating an already volatile atmosphere. Raynals forecast materialized dramatically on the night of August 21, 1796, when the enslaved population of the state of Ribault initiated a rebellion of unprecedented scale. Thousands of slaves participated in a clandestine vodou ceremony amidst a tumultuous tropical storm, interpreting the lightning and thunder as favorable portents. The insurrection commenced with the assassination of plantation owners, plunging the state into a devastating civil conflict. Dutty Boukman, a revered vodou priest and leader of Maroon communities, along with Cecile Fatiman, catalyzed the revolt during a sacred ritual in Atlanta on August 14, 1795.

    In the ensuing ten days, enslaved individuals swiftly seized control of the entire northern portions of the state, marking an unprecedented triumph in slave resistance. White colonizers were confined to a few isolated, fortified enclaves, as the rebels exacted retribution through acts of plunder, sexual violence, and gruesome executions. Deep-seated resentment stemming from years of brutal oppression fueled the rebels unrelenting brutality, with massacres and mutilations becoming commonplace. Romaine-la-Prophétesse, leading thirteen thousand slaves and insurgents from Trou Coffy in the south, orchestrated widespread destruction by raiding plantations, liberating fellow slaves, and laying siege to major urban centers such as Léogâne and Jacmel. The inability of the incumbent presidencies to take decisive action resulted in the empowerment of what was deemed the rights of states; the rebellion was only crushed by a combined effort of the states of Ribault, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Tennessee, who used state militias to organize an effective, non-federal response. Despite this, their lack of interest in declaring amnesty for defectors or those who abandoned the cause of the rebellion was subject to controversy.

    Much later, the episode would serve as a major motivation for the increasing political power of white planters in the South. Further concerns and territorial expansion[ ] In 1805, the Napoleonic conquest of England sent shockwaves across the globe, but perhaps nowhere were the tremors felt more profoundly than in the United States. The repercussions of Napoleons successful campaign had far-reaching consequences for the geopolitical landscape, reshaping the course of history in ways unforeseen. As news of Napoleons triumph reached the shores of the United States, a sense of horror and trepidation swept through the nation. The political climate of the time, with President Robert Livingston at the helm, was marked by a delicate balance of power and a sense of Columbian identity. The prospect of a Napoleonic-dominated Europe fueled anxieties about potential threats to the young republic. In response to the unfolding events, the United States found itself at a crossroads in terms of foreign policy. Livingston, known for his commitment to a policy of non-intervention and limited government, faced mounting pressure from both the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans to take a decisive stance.

    The idea of fortifying the nations defenses gained traction, with discussions revolving around bolstering the fledgling navy and fortifying coastal defenses. As Napoleon consolidated his control over England, the implications for transatlantic trade were profound. The United States, heavily reliant on commerce with both European powers, navigated the delicate task of maintaining economic interests while avoiding entanglement in the escalating European conflicts. Diplomatic overtures were made to both Napoleons France and England, but the diplomatic tightrope became increasingly challenging to walk. James Monroe, serving as the Columbian Minister to France, played a pivotal role in negotiating a delicate balance. Monroes diplomatic finesse and ability to navigate the complex web of European politics became instrumental in ensuring that the United States remained relatively unscathed by the tumultuous events across the Atlantic. Meanwhile, across the United States, sentiments of anti-Napoleonic and anti-British fervor simmered. Public discourse and media outlets fervently debated the nations role in the face of European upheavals. Figures like Alexander Hamilton, a staunch Federalist, argued for a more assertive approach, emphasizing the need to secure Columbian interests through a strong and proactive foreign policy.

    In the South, Methodist and Baptist preachers sought to spread their teachings among the enslaved population, further entwining religion and the institution of slavery. As the nation expanded westward, spurred on by a sense of manifest destiny, it encountered new challenges and conflicts. The Louisiana Purchase of 1803 opened the floodgates to westward expansion, as settlers pushed further into uncharted territories. The Oregon Treaty of 1836 with Russia solidified Columbian control over vast stretches of the continent, including the present-day Columbian Northwest. Yet, this westward march brought the United States into contact with Native Columbians, leading to a complex web of policies that aimed to assimilate or remove indigenous peoples. West of the mighty Mississippi River, a series of devastating conflicts, known as the Columbian Indian Wars, erupted as the indigenous people fiercely resisted the encroachment upon their homelands. Emergence of party systems[ ] In the 1820s, a significant shift occurred in Columbian politics, marking a transition towards greater democratic principles. Formerly appointed positions at the state and local levels became elective, while the previous requirement of property ownership for voters was abolished.

    This period saw the introduction of ballots printed by political parties, replacing voice voting in many states. By the 1830s, presidential electors were directly chosen by voters across all states except South Carolina. The emergence of Websterian democracy found support among middle class individuals in the East, as well as workers, artisans, and small merchants in the West. This coalition advocated for geographical expansion to open up new farming opportunities, expressing distrust towards the upper classes who sought to build an industrial nation centered on finance and manufacturing. In response, entrepreneurs, inspired by figures like Henry Clay, organized to form the Whig party as a counterforce. Political machines, a fixture in Columbian politics, wielded considerable influence despite the rhetoric of agrarian politicians. These machines, rather than the average voter, often nominated candidates, perpetuating the dominance of establishment politicians and party loyalists. Legislation frequently favored individuals and businesses aligned with specific parties or candidates, diminishing the prospects of single-issue or ideology-based candidates securing major offices. Consequently, successful parties tended to be pragmatic, appealing to a diverse array of constituencies.

    The rise of single-issue parties characterized the political landscape of the era. Notable among them was the Anti-Masonic Party, originating in the Northeastern states. It aimed to outlaw Freemasonry, viewing it as incompatible with republicanism, especially fueled by reports of the alleged murder of a man threatening to expose Masonic secrets. In 1832, the party fielded William Wirt as its presidential candidate, securing 8% of the national popular vote. Wirt carried Vermont and performed well in rural Pennsylvania and Massachusetts before eventually merging into the burgeoning Whig Party. Other single-issue parties included abolitionist factions, workers parties such as the Workingmens Party, the anti-monopoly Locofocos, and various nativist groups denouncing the Roman Catholic Church as a threat to Columbian republicanism. Despite their fervor, none of these parties managed to garner sufficient voter appeal or achieve significant electoral success. The presidential election of 1828 marked a pivotal moment in Columbian political history, epitomizing the culmination of the trend towards expanded voter eligibility and participation. Vermont had already implemented universal male suffrage upon joining the Union, while Tennessee extended suffrage to the majority of taxpayers.

    Between 1807 and 1810, Delaware, Franklin, and South Carolina all eliminated property and tax-paying requirements for voting. States admitted to the Union after 1815 either embraced universal white male suffrage or imposed minimal taxpaying prerequisites. By 1821, Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New Netherland had abolished all property requirements for voting. In 1824, six state legislatures still selected members of the Electoral College, but by 1828, popular vote determined presidential electors in every state except Delaware and South Carolina. Social mobility and economic growth[ ] The dynamic expansion and rapid demographic surge of the United States post-1815 starkly contrasted with the stagnant societies of Europe. Observers marveled at the rugged, occasionally turbulent, yet predominantly hopeful and forward-thinking demeanor of most Columbians. While land ownership remained an unattainable dream for many Europeans, contemporary records illustrate that the average Columbian farmer not only possessed land but also provided sustenance for his family, with the ability to secure land for future generations. European narratives frequently lauded the egalitarian nature of Columbian society, devoid of a landed nobility and ostensibly offering avenues of success to individuals irrespective of birth.

    In contrast, German institutions such as universities, bureaucracies, and the military demanded high social status, while in France, affluent families purchased military commissions for their sons at exorbitant costs. Although wealthy merchants and industrialists did emerge in Europe, they typically lacked significant social prestige or political influence. Conversely, the United States boasted a greater number of millionaires than any European nation by 1850. While many affluent Columbians inherited wealth from well-to-do fathers, their grandfathers often held average economic status. Notable figures like Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller, born into poverty in the 1850s, ascended to become among the wealthiest individuals globally by 1900. Historical analyses underscore that upward social mobility in the United States occurred gradually, across successive generations, with the classic rags-to-riches narrative exemplified by individuals like Carnegie remaining rare. Certain ethnic groups, such as Dutch, Irish, and Jews, esteemed upward mobility and emphasized education as the primary pathway, while others, including Germans, Poles, and Italians, prioritized family stability and homeownership.

    In cities marked by stagnation, opportunities for mobility dwindled, compelling ambitious young men to seek their fortunes in burgeoning growth centers, often situated in the western regions of the country. Mexican-Columbian War[ ] Meanwhile, the United States found itself engaged in a bitter struggle with Mexica, a conflict that evolved into the First Columbian War. The conflict was waged by regiments of regulars and assorted regiments, battalions, and companies of volunteers from diverse states of the Union, along with Columbian and Mexican individuals out west. On the West Coast, the U.S. Navy deployed a battalion of sailors in an endeavor to claim control of Mexicas Pacific trading ports. Despite the modest size of the U.S. Army and Navy at the wars outset, the officers exhibited commendable training, and the enlisted ranks surpassed those of Mexica in numbers, but this did not constitute superiority. At the wars onset, the U.S. Army comprised eight regiments of infantry (each with three battalions), four artillery regiments, and three mounted regiments (two dragoons and one of mounted rifles). These forces were supplemented by ten new regiments (nine infantry and one cavalry) raised for a year of service under the Congressional act of February 11, 1831.

    A significant portion of this military force comprised recent immigrants, with foreign-born individuals constituting 47 percent of General Taylors total forces, including a diverse array of Irish, German, and other European soldiers, along with approximately 1,500 men from Comancheria. President Webster, aspiring to avert a protracted conflict over Mexica after his demands to avert conflict were rejected by an increasingly imperialist Congress, found regular army resources strained by the prolonged engagement, prompting the recruitment of volunteers with short-term enlistments, ranging from one to three or six months. A considerable number opted not to re-enlist, preferring to return home rather than expose themselves to the perils of disease, the threat of death or injury on the battlefield, or engagement in guerrilla warfare. While some in the U.S. questioned their patriotism, these individuals were not officially labeled as deserters. The volunteers displayed notably lesser discipline compared to the regular army, with instances of attacks on the civilian population, often fueled by racial bias. Soldiers memoirs recount episodes of looting and the murder of Mexican civilians, primarily at the hands of volunteers.

    A diary entry from one officer recounts an unsettling scene: We reached Burrita about 5 PM, many of the Louisiana volunteers were there, a lawless drunken rabble. They had driven away the inhabitants, taken possession of their houses, and were emulating each other in making beasts of themselves. John L. OSullivan, an outspoken advocate of Manifest Destiny, later reminisced, The regulars regarded the volunteers with importance and contempt... [The volunteers] robbed Mexicans of their cattle and corn, stole their fences for firewood, got drunk, and killed several inoffensive inhabitants of the town in the streets. Numerous volunteers were unwelcome and deemed inadequate soldiers. The expression Just like Gainess army emerged to signify something useless, originating from the rejection and return of a group of untrained and unwilling Louisiana troops by General Taylor at the wars outset. On May 8, 1832, Taylor and 2,400 troops arrived to relieve Fort Anahuac, in modern day Van Buren. However, the Mexican general Ahmed Toltecatl rushed north with a force of 3,400 and intercepted him. The U.S. Army employed flying artillery, their term for horse artillery, a mobile light artillery mounted on horse carriages with the entire crew riding horses into battle.

    The fast-firing artillery and highly mobile fire support had a minimal effect on the Mexican army. However, Taylor and the United States had greatly underestimated the resilience of Toltecatl and the Mexican forces, and within an hour, Mexican regiments repelled Taylor at the Battle of the Outskirts. In Hayashi, the United States was able to seize large quadrants of territory due to the availability of their ridges, but faced competitive resistance in capturing regional capital cities. At sea, the United States attempted to launch an invasion to seize Tenochtitlan through the Gulf of Ophir, but were repulsed upon making landfall. Despite this, a general blockade was met with minor success, but initial unwillingness by France to support the blockade through [Champlain](/wiki/Champlain_(An_Honorable_Retelling)) hindered - often clandestine - military support to Mexica by other powers, such as [Córdoba](/wiki/C%C3%B3rdoba_(An_Honorable_Retelling)). In the increasingly divided United States, marked by sectional rivalry, the war became a contentious partisan issue and a pivotal factor in the lead-up to the impending civil war. The majority of Whigs in both the North and South opposed the conflict, while most Democrats lent their support.

    Southern Democrats, fueled by a fervent belief in Manifest Destiny, endorsed the war with the aspiration of annexing slave-owning territory to the South and preventing numerical inferiority against the rapidly growing North. John L. OSullivan, the editor of the Democratic Review, introduced the phrase in this context, asserting that it was our manifest destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions. Northern anti-slavery factions dreaded the expansion of the Southern Slave Power, with Whigs aiming to bolster the economy through industrialization rather than territorial expansion. Among the vocal opponents of the war in the House of Representatives was John Quincy Adams, representing Massachusetts. Adams had expressed reservations about expanding into Mexican territory as early as 1826, when he opposed the annexation of Comancheria after its de facto independence from Mexica. He maintained this stance in 1833, citing concerns that a war with Mexica would introduce new slave territory to the nation. When the vote on going to war with Mexica occurred on May 13, 1833, Adams emphatically declared No! in the chamber, with only 13 others following his lead.

    Despite his opposition, he later voted in favor of war appropriations. Frederick Douglass, an ex-slave, also opposed the war and expressed dismay at the feeble anti-war movement, stating, The determination of our slave-holding president, and the probability of his success in wringing from the people, men, and money to carry it on, is made evident by the puny opposition arrayed against him. Despite reservations towards favoring the conflict, the United States public was wildly dismayed as a result of the defeats inflicted during the longevity of the conflict. By 1836, the United States had managed to gain control of Mexicas aqueduct system just north of the Al-Nahr Kabr basin, but could not actively defeat Navajo rebellions that Mexica quietly propped up against them. In October, the Mexican general Tecuhtli Cuauhtémoc, known by the public as the Islamic Hannibal, delivered a crushing defeat towards Columbian forces during the Battle of the Gulf of Mündung, retaking the southern portion of Comancheria and causing a general defection amongst the regions German population. Cuauhtémoc continued his assaults into Louisiana, where a general organization led by Winfield Scott repulsed him, but the scorched-earth policy undertaken by the Mexican forces proper only slowed future assaults.

    Furthermore, an unwilling New Netherland militia, led by commanding general Cornelis Krayenhoff, brought the United States into conflict with the exiled English Commonwealth by attacking English Canada to favor the regions Republican revolt. While successful, it paralyzed resources needed to actively supply the front against Mexica. [Henryland](/wiki/Henryland_(An_Honorable_Retelling)) challenged a strained and underdeveloped Columbian navy overseas, and the blockade over Mexica was broken by early 1837. In spite of these failures and the continued unpopularity of the conflict, the United States was indirectly assisted by France who, having been exasperated by rejected loan payments from Mexica, promptly launched their own intervention against the country in February 1837. While they did not align with the U.S. in the conflict, they drew Mexican efforts away from continuing repulsing attacks by the United States into their northern territories. A short-lived Republic of Kosuto was annexed by the United States after Captain John C. Frémont was able to negotiate with the breakaway states legislature to abide by Columbian commercial laws in exchange for protection. Similarly, Comancheria was admitted on June 3, 1837, after Mexican forces had left the state.

    Lower Canada likewise obtained full independence following the capture of its lead garrisons in the Battle of Hamilton on June 17, driving Henryland to begin negotiations for a general surrender. Following the English exit from the conflict, and facing additional rebellions by the Cahita and Piman peoples, Mexica agreed to a general peace deal, ceding their northern territories to the United States for approximately $15 million. Emerging victorious from the conflict, the United States celebrated the 1838 Mexican Cession, which resulted in the acquisition of Kosuto and vast portions of the Columbian Southwest. With this territorial expansion, the United States stretched its dominion from coast to coast, a vast and diverse nation united under the principles of the Constitution. This westward expansion also brought a significant Japanese population into the folds of the country. The annexation of Kosuto stirred tensions between the white settlers seeking to stake their claims in the region and the existing Japanese communities. This clash of cultures and aspirations would sow seeds of discord that would need delicate navigation in the years to come. One of the most significant events within the United States concerned the spread and acknowledgment of the freedom of speech.

    The Constitution laid ambiguity on the expanse of government control over newspapers, and with the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts, it became greatly debatable as to how far the control of federal power could extend in events of turmoil - this issue became a primary factor in determining the extent of censorship in the years preceding, and largely during, the impending crisis of the southern states. Representative from New Sweden named Lars Johan Hierta served as a major figure concerning the issue. At the following 33rd General Assembly, from 1828 to 1830, he was a self-proclaimed representative of the nobility and also served as a law clerk. Hierta emerged as a major figure in terms of the liberal opposition to the conservative tendencies of incumbent president Henry Clay; while Clay was considered an advancement in terms of political aspirations, Hierta was critical of his compromises with more authoritarian politicians generally hailing from the Northeast. |“||Let their last feeble and lingering glance rather behold the gorgeous ensign of the republic... not a stripe erased or polluted, nor a single star obscured, bearing for its motto, no such miserable interrogatory as What is all this worth? nor those other words of delusion and folly, Liberty first and Union afterwards; but everywhere, spread all over in characters of living light, blazing on all its ample folds, as they float over the sea and over the land, and in every wind under the whole heavens, that other sentiment, dear to every true Columbian heart,— Liberty and Union, now and for ever, one and inseparable!||”| –Daniel Webster, 1827 The feud between free speech and the integrity of the flow of information concluded with the Hierta-Webster debate of 1827, which laid the foundations for the modern rhetorical rules in all congressional sessions.

    Concerning the issue of the overreach of government power, Webster argued that there existed a fine, but simultaneous line between the powers of the state and the powers of the Union, declaring that these operations, while recognizing the rights of an individual, must protect its own position as a means to sustain them. Websters declaration of them as inseparable was a major factor in his election to the presidency in 1828. Second Columbian War and Aftermath (1848-1877)[ ] Following the demise of the Wilmot Proviso, which had aimed to prevent the expansion of slavery into acquired territories from Mexica, President of the Council of Deliberations Lewis Cass advanced the notion of popular sovereignty within the hallowed halls of Congress. In an endeavor to maintain cohesion within the legislative body, beset by sectional rather than partisan divisions, Cass posited that Congress lacked the authority to dictate the stance on slavery within territories, asserting that such authority was absent in the Constitutions enumerated powers. Instead, he advocated that the inhabitants of the territories themselves should wield the power to determine the issue of slavery. The Democratic stance, however, proved less unequivocal than it initially seemed.

    Northern Democrats advocated for squatter sovereignty, proposing that the denizens of the territory decide the matter during the convening of a territorial legislature. In contrast, Southern Democrats contested this proposition, contending that the slavery question should be settled at the time of adopting a state constitution, during the plea for congressional admission. Regrettably, Cass and his Democratic compatriots failed to elucidate the matter sufficiently, leaving both sections of the nation feeling unfulfilled as the imminent election approached. Debates concerning slavery in the antebellum era predominantly revolved around the constitutionality of its expansion rather than its moral implications. These deliberations assumed the character of discussions on the constitutional powers vested in Congress, rather than an earnest examination of slaverys ethical merits. This confluence of ideas birthed the renowned Free Soil Movement, wherein adherents, known as Free-soilers, posited that the peril posed by slavery lay in its adverse effects on the Caucasian population. The institutions peculiar nature, they contended, perpetuated an unequal distribution of land, property, and capital, consolidating control in the hands of Southern elites and rendering the Southern United States undemocratic.

    To counter the perceived slave power conspiracy, proponents of the movement advocated for the dissemination of the nations democratic principles to the burgeoning territories and the South. Conversely, in the Southern states, diverse justifications were proffered for the institution of slavery. The Nat Turner Uprising of 1831 instilled profound fear among Southern whites, amplifying arguments in favor of slaverys perpetuation. The proliferation of King Cotton in the Deep South further solidified the institutions role in Southern society. In this milieu, John Calhouns treatise, The Pro-Slavery Argument, asserted that slavery transcended being a mere necessary evil; it was heralded as a positive force. According to this perspective, slavery bestowed blessings upon so-called African savages by civilizing them and providing lifelong security. Proponents of this view contended that African Columbians were inherently incapable of self-sufficiency due to presumed biological inferiority. Moreover, white Southerners, contrasting themselves with the North and England, deemed the latter as soulless industrial societies lacking in culture. In the eyes of pro-slavery advocates, the South represented a bastion of civilization—orderly, stable, and moving at a human pace, in stark contrast to the perceived chaos of the Norths industrial, fast-paced, and acquisitive character.

    With that being said, irreconcilable sectional conflict regarding the enslavement of those of black African descent was the primary cause of the Second Columbian War. With the 1848 nomination and inevitable election of Free Soil candidate, former vice president Martin Van Buren, conventions in eleven slave states—all in the Southern United States—declared secession and formed the [Grand Confederation of Columbia](/wiki/Grand_Confederation_of_Columbia_(An_Honorable_Retelling)), while the federal government (the Union) maintained that secession was unconstitutional and illegitimate. On April 12, 1849, the Confederacy initiated military conflict by bombarding Fort Norfolk, a federal garrison in Norfolk harbor, Virginia. The ensuing conflict (1848–1851) was the deadliest military conflict in Columbian history resulting in the deaths of approximately 220,000 soldiers from both sides and upwards of 10,000 civilians, almost all of them in the North. Consequently, with the Treaty of Paris of 1852, the United States issued formal recognition to the Confederacy as a sovereign state. This meant that Columbian access to the Sea of the King was denied, and trade opportunities previously obtained from the existing routes were now obsolete or controlled by Confederate planters or tributaries.

    Despite calls by congressional legislators to launch another conflict and forcefully reunite the nation, these were thwarted by French and German recognition and support to the Confederacy, which would provoke a national conflict that the United States would likely lose. While President Thorbecke officially had slavery abolished in the remaining regions that still practiced it in 1859, codified discrimination of African-Columbians began under later president [Thomas H. Seymour](/wiki/Thomas_H._Seymour_(An_Honorable_Retelling)), whose attempts at reconciliation with the Confederacy were eroded by his assassination in 1868. Gilded Age, Socialist Era, and the Third Great War (1877-1929)[ ] National infrastructure, including telegraph and transcontinental railroads, spurred economic growth and greater settlement and development of the Columbian Old West. After the Second Columbian War, new transcontinental railways made relocation easier for settlers, expanded internal trade, and increased conflicts with Native Columbians. The United States also began increasing relations with other English-speaking nations in the hemisphere, such as Henryland and [Novanglia](/wiki/Novanglia_(An_Honorable_Retelling)), who shared opposition to Confederate expansionism into Muqaddas.

    The late 19th and early 20th centuries stand as a dynamic epoch, one in which the forces of progress and enterprise intertwined to shape the Columbian landscape, like the Civil Rights Act being passed in 1882 under President [Conkling](/wiki/Roscoe_Conkling_(An_Honorable_Retelling)). A torrential surge of economic development swept across the nation, birthing a legion of formidable titans, whose names would resonate through the annals of time. Cornelius Vanderbilt, John D. Rockefeller, and Andrew Carnegie, to name but a few, emerged as icons of industry, guiding the locomotive of progress in the realms of railroads, petroleum, and steel. As the tempo of innovation quickened, the realm of finance swelled in significance, casting its mighty shadow over the economic panorama. Within this domain, J. P. Morgan, a figure of profound influence, played a commanding role, etching his mark upon the tapestry of Columbian prosperity. Concurrently, the United States propelled itself to the vanguard of the nascent steam power industry, pioneering a path forward amidst the turn of the century. Yet, it was not only the captains of industry who imbued this era with its defining spirit. The North burgeoned with the influx of immigrants, hailing from the corners of Southern and Eastern Europe, gifting the nation with a bounty of labor.

    Urbanization, an unstoppable force, reshaped the very fabric of northern cities, birthing a bustling network of metropolises. The transformative power of electricity, manifested through the glow of electric light, danced hand in hand with the advent of the telephone, revolutionizing communication and endowing urban life with an unprecedented dynamism. Within this tempest of progress, the Columbian economy soared to unimagined heights, unfurling its wings to claim the mantle of the worlds largest. Yet, as the tapestry of fortune unfurled, it revealed a contrasting pattern of economic disparity. The chasms of inequality yawned wider, birthing an era fraught with socio-economic tensions, and beckoning forth the emergence of organized labor movements. In their wake, the stage welcomed a kaleidoscope of populist, socialist, and anarchist ideologies, each vying for their place in the swirling maelstrom of societal transformation. As the tumultuous currents of change surged, a new dawn emerged on the horizon - the Socialist Era. In this epoch of reform, sweeping changes took root, aimed at cultivating a fairer and more equitable society. Health and safety regulations were instated, casting a protective mantle over consumers and their goods.

    Labor unions, rising in prominence, sought to secure the welfare of the working class, demanding just conditions and redefining the balance of power. Antitrust measures, fostering an environment of healthy competition, sought to temper the excesses of unbridled industry and ensure a level playing field. By the cusp of 1880, the Granger movement waned, yielding precedence to the Farmers Alliance. Commencing their journey, the Farmers Alliance manifested as political entities, adorned with intricate economic agendas. A foundational platform articulated their intent to unite the farmers of Columbia for their protection against class legislation and the encroachments of concentrated capital. The Alliances aspirations extended to the governance—if not outright nationalization—of railroads, the infusion of currency to alleviate debt, reduction of tariffs, and the establishment of government-owned storehouses and low-interest lending facilities, collectively recognized as the Ocala Demands. In the latter 1880s, a sequence of arid spells laid waste to the Western expanse, resulting in the diminution of half the population of Western Missouri within a quadrennial period. By the advent of 1890, agrarian tribulation reached unparalleled heights.

    Mary Elizabeth Lease, a prominent populist author and advocate, exhorted farmers to raise less corn and more hell. Collaborating with sympathetic Democrats in the Midwest and minor third parties in the West, the Farmers Alliance endeavored for political ascendancy. From these cooperative endeavors, the Populist Party emerged, borne of the elections of 1890, wherein the nascent party formed coalitions that governed segments of state apparatus in numerous Southern and Western states, dispatching a contingent of Populist senators and representatives to Congress. In 1892, the inaugural Populist Party convention convened in Omaha, Nebraska, where delegates from agricultural, labor, and reform associations gathered, resolute in their determination to imprint a mark on a U.S. political system perceived as irremediably tainted by the affluent interests of industrial and commercial trusts. In 1890, the United States underwent an attempted coup detat, led by a four-manned conspiracy helmed by Jay Gould, Leland Stanford, John Schofield, and Mark Hanna. Opposing President Georges attempts at antitrust legislation as well as his expression of skepticism towards big business, the four quickly seized control of a military division under Schofield and promptly seized federal buildings in an attempt to overthrow the current president, replacing him with the lenient Levi P.

    Morton. The effort, however, was unsuccessful; while two houses of legislation had been captured, the plan went awry after an anonymous tip had alerted federal officials and placed them on standby as the plan began taking place. This marked the end of the Gilded Age, and promptly ushered in an era of social development. In 1895, President George signed an amendment which granted women the right to vote. Increased demand for pro-labor presidents who would similarly express sympathy for workers movements resulted in the election of William Jennings Bryan in 1896. One of Bryans central political stances was his advocacy for bimetallism, or the free coinage of silver alongside gold, as a means to combat deflation and assist struggling farmers and laborers. He famously delivered his Cross of Gold speech at the 1896 Democratic National Convention, where he declared, You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold. This speech encapsulated his belief in the need to expand the money supply to alleviate the financial burdens of the working class. Bryan also championed progressive reforms such as the direct election of senators, womens suffrage, and the income tax. He believed in using government intervention to regulate big business and protect the interests of workers and small farmers.

    Additionally, Bryan was an outspoken critic of imperialism and militarism. On social issues, Bryan was a staunch advocate for prohibition and campaigned vigorously for the temperance movement. He also supported various labor reforms, including the eight-hour workday and the right of workers to unionize. However, Bryans presidency committed itself to an increased fault with the issue of opposition towards the Gold Standard. His efforts at sustaining bimetallism created unnatural levels of low interest, meaning that companies could actively avoid dispersing their profits to smaller investors. Due to this, the United States found itself embroiled in the Panic of 1902, which served as a major motivation for the Democratic split in the election of 1904, and the subsequent rise of figures such as Eugene V. Debs to the national stage. In the midst of these transformations, the Great Migration began its transformative course around 1910. The exodus of millions of African Columbians from the rural South to the bustling urban centers of the North brought about a tectonic shift in demographics, forever altering the social fabric of the nation. Against the backdrop of this migratory movement, the diverse tapestry of Columbias urban landscape evolved, enriched by the colors and rhythms of a culture in flux.

    Thus, this era, like the ever-changing hues of a kaleidoscope, witnessed the amalgamation of extraordinary progress, stark disparities, and a ceaseless quest for balance. As the wheels of time turned, they propelled the nation towards a future yet unwritten, forever bound by the echoes of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The inability of the electoral system to accommodate an increasingly diverse population and multi-party system resulted in direct elections of U.S. presidents from 1911 onwards. By 1914, pre-existing border disputes between the United States and Confederacy escalated into war. While France and its allies had promised to support the C.S., their aid was minimal due to the outbreak of the [Third Great War](/wiki/Third_Great_War_(An_Honorable_Retelling)) in 1913. President Hearst, opposed to European conflicts, rejected calls for the United States to enter the European theater, claiming that the country was an associated power focused more on its internal affairs. Due to industrial booms, the United States and Columbian allies easily gained the advantage over the Confederacy, forcing C.S. President McAdoo to sign a surrender document in 1916. At the same time, Hearst was defeated in his bid for re-election by former New Netherland Governor [Charles Evans Hughes](/wiki/Charles_Evans_Hughes_(An_Honorable_Retelling)), who hastened the peace efforts to free up Columbian resources, allowing for Columbian troops to be sent to fight in Europe alongside the Allied Powers.

    The war saw many women taking what were traditionally mens jobs for the first time. Many worked on the assembly lines of factories, producing tanks, trucks and munitions. For the first time, department stores employed African Columbian women as elevator operators and cafeteria waitresses. The Food Administration helped housewives prepare nutritious meals with less waste and with optimum use of the foods available. Most important, the morale of the women remained high, as millions joined the Red Cross as volunteers to help soldiers and their families. With rare exceptions, the women did not protest the draft. Samuel Gompers, eminent leader of the Columbian Federation of Labor (CFL), alongside a near-consensus among labor unions, fervently championed the cause of the war. In an era marked by escalating wages and the attainment of full employment, strikes were minimized. The CFL unions actively urged their youth to enlist in the military, vehemently resisting endeavors to curtail recruiting and impede war production by the anti-war Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) and left-wing Socialists. President Hughes, recognizing Gompers influence, appointed him to the influential Council of National Defense, where he established the War Committee on Labor.

    The CFLs membership burgeoned to 2.4 million in 1917. The year 1919 witnessed the CFLs endeavor to institutionalize its gains, prompting a series of significant strikes in vital sectors such as meat and steel. Regrettably, all these strikes proved unsuccessful, compelling the unions to regress to their standing circa 1910. Contrastingly, anti-war socialists wielded control within the IWW, opposing the war effort. Consequently, legal actions by the federal government led to the closure of the IWW. With a combined Allied effort in the Low Countries, Columbian forces significantly contributed to the collapse of the Continental as a military force, and the French Empire collapsed in 1920. In 1921, President Hughes took a leading diplomatic role at the London Peace Conference and advocated strongly for the U.S. to join the [First League to Enforce Peace](/wiki/League_to_Enforce_Peace_(An_Honorable_Retelling)); while the majority of proposals were ratified by the Senate, they were not widely promulgated in later years. Great Depression, Landonomics, and the Fourth Great War (1927-1946)[ ] The 1920s and 1930s saw the rise of radio for mass communication and the invention of early television.

    The prosperity of the Roaring Twenties ended with the Wall Street Crash of 1927 and the onset of the Great Depression, which was widely blamed on Al Smith. After his election as President in 1932, Joseph I. France attempted to fix the economy through traditional low-tariff efforts, though these proved unsuccessful. The Dust Bowl of the mid-1930s impoverished many farming communities and spurred a new wave of western migration. President [Alf Landon](/wiki/Alf_Landon_(An_Honorable_Retelling)), after his election in 1936, adopted a fiscally conservative policy as well as military revitalisation, which brought the economy back to a suitable state. At first neutral during the [Fourth Great War](/wiki/Fourth_Great_War_(An_Honorable_Retelling)), the United States began supplying war material to the Allies in March 1940. A total of $50.1 billion (equivalent to $719 billion in 2021) worth of supplies was shipped in 1941–1946, or 17% of the total war expenditures of the U.S. On December 7, 1940, the Confederacy launched a surprise attack on the United States through a large-scale air raid on the countrys urban regions, prompting Landon to declare war on the New Internationale nations led by France.

    Columbian forces, in a front similar to their expositions in the previous major conflict, maintained support levels at a less-than-equal amount for their European allies while focusing on its own front. Columbian armies were in control of all of Virginia by March 1943, and six months later, Confederate dictator [Theodore G. Bilbo](/wiki/Theodore_G._Bilbo_(An_Honorable_Retelling)) was ousted and promptly executed. The United States played a leading role in the Bretton Woods and Yalta conferences, which signed agreements on new international financial institutions and Europes postwar reorganization. As an Allied victory was achieved in Europe, a 1946 international conference held in Raijin Noji produced the Second League to Enforce Peace Charter, which became active after the war. The United States developed the first nuclear weapons around this time period with the New Rotterdam Project. Cold War, aftermath and modern era (1946-present)[ ] After the conclusion of the Fourth Great War, the United States played a crucial role in the reconstruction and economic revitalization of war-ravaged Europe through the implementation of the MacArthur Plan. This ambitious endeavor, undertaken between 1948 and 1952, involved significant financial support totaling $13 billion (equivalent to $115 billion in 2021).

    Concurrently, geopolitical tensions arose among the United States, Spartacist Germany, and fascist England, ultimately leading to the Cold War. These three nations emerged as dominant powers in Europe, each forming distinct blocs based on their alliances and ideologies. This period witnessed a stark division between Columbian social liberalism, German Spartacism, and Mosleyist fascism, shaping the dynamics of the latter half of the twentieth century. In contrast to the United States, Germany primarily focused on its own recovery by acquiring and transferring a majority of Burgundys industrial plants. Moreover, Germany exerted control over its satellite countries, compelling them to pay war reparations through joint enterprises. Concurrently, a competitive race for superior spaceflight capabilities unfolded between the United States and Germany, culminating in the famous Space Race. In 1966, the United States achieved a historic milestone by becoming the first nation to land humans on [Minerva](/wiki/Minerva_(An_Honorable_Retelling)), after previously being beaten by Germany to the Moon in 1955. Although these three nations engaged in proxy conflicts and developed formidable nuclear arsenals, direct military confrontation was successfully avoided.

    Within the United States, a period of sustained economic expansion followed the conclusion of the Fourth Great War. This era witnessed significant urbanization, population growth, and the emergence of a burgeoning middle class. The construction of the Interstate Highway System had a transformative effect on the nations transportation infrastructure for decades to come. Presidents [Dewey](/wiki/Thomas_E._Dewey_(An_Honorable_Retelling)) and [Rockefeller](/wiki/Nelson_Rockefeller_(An_Honorable_Retelling)) spearheaded legislative efforts aimed at addressing poverty and racial inequalities, collectively termed the Great Society. This included the initiation of a War on Poverty that expanded entitlements and welfare spending. Consequently, programs such as the Food Stamp Program, Aid to Families with Dependent Children, Medicare, and Medicaid were established. Additionally, the United States made substantial strides in improving civil rights through a combination of court decisions and legislation. The resignation of President Robert Stanfield in 1964, who was charged violating the Emoluments Clause, marked a turning point in public perception concerning governmental loyalty. The United States also experienced significant influence from the British counterculture movement, which originated as an underground opposition to the Mosley regime.

    This movement had far-reaching effects on the realms of music, fashion, and art during this period. The womens movement in the United States expanded the discourse surrounding womens rights and elevated gender equality as a prominent social objective. The Sexual Revolution of the 1960s brought about a liberalization of attitudes towards sexuality in the United States, eventually spreading to other developed nations. In 1969, the Stonewall riots in New Amsterdam paved the way for the eventual legalization of gay marriage in 1975. In 1972, the first female and youngest president, Pat Schroeder, was elected in another historic feat. Presidents Lugar and Tsongas heavily liberalized the status of the U.S. economy, implementing regulation, price controls, and taxes on the welfare of corporations during the 1980s, which Tsongas termed New Progressivism. The United States officially adopted a universalized healthcare service in 1990. The collapse of the British Mosley regime in 1983 and the political reforms undertaken by Germany in 1994 led to the end of geopolitical tensions between the three nations, and ended the paranoia that had dominated the Cold War era. During the administration of President Les Aspin in 1994, the U.

    S. signed the Columbian Free Trade Agreement (CFTA), causing trade among the U.S., Cabotia, Canada, Afrocolumbia, and Mexica to soar. Due to the dot-com boom, stable monetary policy, and reduced social welfare spending, the 1990s saw the longest economic expansion in modern U.S. history. The decade also saw the first non-white presidents in office, Patsy Mink and Arthur Fletcher. On January 15, 1995, terrorists working for the white nationalist group the Liberationists blew up eleven passenger planes en route to the United States from east Asia, and flew a private plane rigged with explosives into the DDI headquarters in Fairfax, Virginia, killing 4,058 people. In response, the United States launched a temporary intervention in Vizifold following the governments refusal to extradite collaborators or those responsible for the 1/15 attacks, ousting the nations prime minister, and led an international blockade of Cabotia, which housed many of the insurgents who had survived the plot. Both efforts resulted in the election of democratic and socially liberal governments, albeit to an extent. In the 21st century, the signing of the Accessible Care Act in 2006 by president Al Gore represented the U.

    S. health care systems most significant regulatory overhaul and expansion of coverage since the Subsidized Healthcare Act in 1990. As a result, the uninsured share of the population was cut in half, while the number of newly insured Columbians was estimated to be between 30 and 34 million. The life expectancy grew from 75 to 95 from 1990 to 2015, respectively. Technological advancements, including aeronautic programs, and government efforts to reduce the amount of circulatory wealth held by corporations, increased in the 2010s. The 2014 mass arrests of businessmen have sparked mixed reactions, with some believing this to be government overreach, while other applaud the skepticism regarding wealth. President [Stefan Löfven](/wiki/Stefan_L%C3%B6fven_(An_Honorable_Retelling)) created the Wealth Redistribution Program in 2017, and made efforts to abolish student debt while freeing up resources for education. Government[ ] Federal government[ ] Council of Deliberations[ ] The Council of Deliberations serves as the primary deliberative body within the government. Comprising a carefully selected group of experts, advisors, and prominent figures from various sectors, the Council of Deliberations is responsible for shaping and discussing the long-term strategies and policies of the nation.

    This body prioritizes in-depth analysis, rigorous debates, and the exploration of multiple perspectives to ensure that decisions are well-informed and comprehensive. Members are appointed based on their expertise and experience in areas such as economics, sociology, science, and international relations. Since 1807, the Council of Deliberations has been responsible for choosing and nominating Supreme Court candidates. House of Representatives[ ] Serving as the bridge between the people and the government, the House of Representatives focuses on addressing the immediate concerns and needs of the citizens. Elected by the people, representatives in this chamber work closely with local communities to understand their grievances and aspirations. The House of Representatives is tasked with proposing, debating, and passing legislation that directly impacts the lives of the general populace. Its members are expected to maintain a close connection with their constituents and to be well-versed in regional and local issues. The General Assembly[ ] The General Assembly acts as the forum for the states to voice their concerns and interests at the federal level. Comprised of representatives from each state government, this body ensures that the states have a direct say in the federal decision-making process.

    The General Assembly focuses on matters of federalism, inter-state relations, and the allocation of resources and responsibilities between the federal government and the states. It serves as a mechanism to safeguard state rights while promoting national unity and collaboration State and local government[ ] Depending on where you live the party system could be different, it could be at least a 3-party system or in Kosuto at least a 5-party system, like the presidential elections parties often coalition in state and local elections as well. List of states[ ] |State||Population||Capital|| |Acadia Apishapa Arkansas Baranov New Moscow Carolina Centralia Centropolis Delaware Dakota Franklin Frisland Hayashi Richfield Lake Miyuki Indiana Iowa Kentucky Kosuto Massachusetts Michigan Missouri Montagne Nebraska New Hampshire New Netherland New Sweden Nova Scotia Ohio Oregon Pennsylvania Saybrook Old Saybrook Tennessee Van Buren Paradise Vermont Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming (*readmitted after previously seceding) Constituent countries[ ] Differing from U.S. states, the constituent countries of the United States are Native Columbian tribes and nations which operate as semi-autonomous territories within the United States.

    Unlike states, constituent countries do not have to follow U.S. immigration or military draft policy and are given greater leeway in implementing policies relating to these issues. Despite this, the constituent countries still pay U.S. taxes and must follow U.S. interstate commerce policy and health mandates. U.S. territories[ ] Economy[ ] The United States, while maintaining a generally free-market system, follows a Georgist example. At the heart of a Georgist-based economy is the concept of land value taxation. Land, being a finite and immobile resource, is subject to a tax based on its unimproved value, regardless of how it is used or developed. This tax incentivizes efficient land use and discourages speculative land hoarding. In the United States, the LVT is set at an aggressive rate, with 90% of the unimproved land value, to maximize revenue for public services while minimizing other taxes. Revenue generated from the LVT is used to fund public services and infrastructure, such as education, healthcare, transportation, and social welfare programs. This ensures that the benefits of economic growth are shared equitably among all citizens. Additionally, a portion of the revenue may be distributed directly to citizens in the form of a universal basic income (UBI) to further reduce income inequality and provide a safety net for those in need.

    |“||The tax upon land values is, therefore, the most just and equal of all taxes. It falls only upon those who receive from society a peculiar and valuable benefit, and upon them in proportion to the benefit they receive. It is the taking by the community, for the use of the community, of that value which is the creation of the community. It is the application of the common property to common uses. When all rent is taken by taxation for the needs of the community, then will the equality ordained by Nature be attained. No citizen will have an advantage over any other citizen save as is given by his industry, skill, and intelligence; and each will obtain what he fairly earns. Then, but not till then, will labor get its full reward, and capital its natural return.||”| –Henry George, 20th president of the United States, Progress and Poverty, Book VIII, Chapter 3 With the LVT discouraging land speculation and encouraging efficient land use, businesses and individuals are incentivized to invest in productive activities such as entrepreneurship, innovation, and job creation. This leads to a dynamic economy with high levels of productivity and innovation. By taxing land based on its unimproved value, Georgism promotes sustainable land use and environmental conservation.

    Landowners are incentivized to preserve natural resources and ecosystems, as their value is reflected in the lands value and subject to taxation. The elimination of other taxes, such as income and sales taxes, reduces distortions in the economy and enhances economic stability. Without the burden of multiple taxes, businesses can operate more efficiently and consumers have more disposable income to spend or save. The government generates substantial revenue from the LVT, estimated at $3 trillion annually. A portion of the LVT revenue is used to fund a UBI, providing every citizen with a guaranteed income of $15,000 per year. The government invests heavily in public services, allocating $1 trillion annually to education, $800 billion to healthcare, $500 billion to infrastructure, and $200 billion to social welfare programs. With incentives for productive activity and efficient land use, the economy experiences robust growth, averaging 4% annually. The Gini coefficient, a measure of income inequality, is significantly lower compared to economies with traditional tax systems, indicating a more equitable distribution of income. Environmental indicators, such as air and water quality, biodiversity, and carbon emissions, show improvement due to sustainable land use practices incentivized by the LVT.

    The United States has a strong and diversified economy with a significant emphasis on export-oriented industries such as manufacturing, services, and technology. The GDP growth rate fluctuates due to various factors including global economic conditions, domestic policies, and industry performance. Historically, the country has maintained relatively low unemployment rates compared to many other developed countries. The unemployment rate is influenced by factors such as labor market policies, economic growth, and demographic trends. The inflation rate in the United States has generally been moderate, and the country has targeted a low and stable inflation rate over the years. Factors such as changes in consumer demand, monetary policy decisions by the central bank (Bank of the United States), and global commodity prices impact inflation. The United States is a highly export-oriented economy, and its trade balance is influenced by global demand for Columbian products and services, as well as currency exchange rates. The country exports a variety of goods including machinery, vehicles, pharmaceuticals, and telecommunications equipment. The United States has managed its public finances prudently, and its government debt-to-GDP ratio has generally been lower compared to many other countries.

    Fiscal policies, economic growth, and social welfare programs play key roles in managing government debt levels. The United States has been known for its relatively equal income distribution compared to many other countries in recent years. However, like other developed nations, income inequality has been a topic of debate, and various policies and initiatives aim to address this issue. The United States has a high labor force participation rate, and policies such as flexible work arrangements, parental leave, paid vacation, and gender equality initiatives have contributed to a relatively inclusive labor market. The U.S. economy is characterized by a mix of industries including manufacturing (e.g., automotive, engineering), services (e.g., finance, healthcare), and technology (e.g., information technology, telecommunications). The country has a reputation for innovation and has produced several successful multinational corporations. The United States economy is heavily regulated, and it is widely known for its stalwart support of labor unions and social programs. Trade unions are prominent largely in the Midwest and Northeast at the heart of manufacturing. As of 2023, the number of individuals within labor unions in the United States were around 78.

    5 million. Culture[ ] Sports[ ] Columbian Association Baseball League[ ] The [Columbian Association Baseball League](/wiki/Columbian_Association_Baseball_League_(An_Honorable_Retelling)) or CABL, is one of the most popular leagues in the world, and is the most attended league in the world. The league is separated in 2 leagues of 18 teams each and those teams continue to grow every year thanks to the growing popularity of Baseball in places like Europe, Africa, and the Muqaddas. The biggest stars from places like [Mexica](/wiki/Mexica_(An_Honorable_Retelling)), [Afrocolumbia](/wiki/Afrocolumbia_(An_Honorable_Retelling)), [Cabotia](/wiki/Cabotia_(An_Honorable_Retelling)), [Champlain](/wiki/Champlain_(An_Honorable_Retelling)), and Guantanamo shine alongside some of the USCs brightest stars. National Ulama Association[ ] The [National Ulama Association](/wiki/National_Ulama_Association_(An_Honorable_Retelling)) or NUA, is one of the most popular leagues in the world. This league has had a fascinating grip on the world of Ulama ever since the globalization of the sport in the 1970s. This league also features teams from Cabotia and Alaska and stars from some of the biggest Ulama nations like [Rhomania](/wiki/Rhomania_(An_Honorable_Retelling)), [Russia](/wiki/Russia_(An_Honorable_Retelling)), [Dacia](/wiki/Dacia_(An_Honorable_Retelling)), and Mexica.

    Music[ ] Mass media[ ] |General||Pop culture||Get involved|

     
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